Mount Sterling, Iowa: Dr. Mengele’s Friends - The Forgotten History of Human Vivisection in America and Europe
Samuel A. Ivey 2525 Pyramid Valley Road Mount Sterling, IA 52573
NOTE: Since the writing of this article I became more aware of distortions in the truth that have been used for decades about World War 2, Nazi Germany etc. Due to the extent of the distortions and the efforts to disguise the truth (this includes making it illegal in some countries to question the activities of the Nazi concentration camps–you would think if something is true you would not need to make it illegal to talk about it) I cannot be certain about the factual validity of the exploits of Dr. Mengele. The article is about lesser known individuals which may be considered part of the distortions of the truth–that they are not mentioned in the same corporate media that so frequently talks about Mengele.
Anti-vivisection campaigners must contend with the most obscene and foolish defenses of medical sadism, including the claim that vivisectors only seek the good of humanity (by torturing the innocent). In truth, your average career vivisector reveals psychopathic personality traits in word and deed. As notorious 19th century animal torturer Claude Bernard proudly noted, the vivisector is of a special breed of human that is unmoved by the suffering of their victims, for the pursuit of knowledge trumps all other concerns. Such a view is what gave rise to the idea of the mad scientist, and as vivisection spread like a plague among the medical establishment, so did the desire to expand it beyond the confines of social values.
The exploits of Dr. Josef Mengele, medical researcher in Germany who tortured war prisoners in the camp at Auschwitz in the name of science, are well known.
The usual assumption is to suggest that Mengele was a freakish anomaly, and that the Germans (and their allies the Japanese) were the only ones to engage in such wicked exploitation of vulnerable humans. Now it is known that Mengele, who built a kindergarten for concentration camp children and played them the violin (when he wasn’t experimenting on them) had the support of elite doctors at the prestigious, Nobel Prize-winning, Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute.
The relationship between respected medical men and torture was not isolated to Germany. Dr. James Marion Sims, a president of the American Medical Association in the 19th century, conducted groundbreaking experiments into women’s health upon slaves, and one of his studies included removing a man’s jaw (without anesthetic). Despite this history, his statue remains in New York’s Central Park.
Contrast that with the statue at the center of the Brown Dog Affair of 1907, when a thousand medical students stormed the streets of London attacking police and women in an effort to destroy a statue(!) erected in memory of a dog who had been tortured for two months by vivisectors. Such a furor was raised by these priests of what George Bernard Shaw called “medical voodoo,” that it was removed and not re-instated (in a less conspicuous location) until the 1980s.
Vivisection has its origins in augury and soothsaying—where temple priests would torture living animals with the claim that society would be better off. Vivisectors repeat the same promise when criticized for atrocities. But the nature of the vivisector, a type of “emotional retardation,” is such that they will exploit anyone they can (while claiming they are the real victims of violence and terrorists).
Despite the exceptional status given to Mengele and Sims, medical experimentation upon humans without their approval (but with the support of power) has been carried out to the present day. In the 1940s, the Salk brothers infected mental patients with influenza, and Pfizer did harmful experiments on villagers in Africa in the 1990s. But there are other vivisectors who are not so well known (despite their claims about “furthering human knowledge”) which reveal that as nonhuman experimentation was allowed, it opened the door for experimentation upon unwilling humans- especially the most vulnerable.
A footnote in an article on the history of animal advocacy in the early part of the 20th century referred to a rejected 1923 bill in the New York legislature that would have banned medical experimentation on dogs and orphans.
Further details in a pamphlet titled “Human Vivisection” from the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection by A.E. Parker documents sadistic experiments that would likely be lost to history, if not for the efforts of those who campaigned on the behalf of nonhuman animal (and human) victims of vivisectors. The pamphlet credits Dr. Herbert Snow (surgeon for 29 years), Dr. Walter Hadwen, Dr. Geo. Searle and others for their investigations into the atrocities of vivisectors. It begins with endorsements of human vivisection by several doctors: such as this:
“A human life is nothing compared with a new fact in science. The aim of science is the advancement of human knowledge at any sacrifice of human life. We do not know of any higher use we can put a man to.” Professor Slosson in the New York Independent, December l2th, 1895.
Dr. Snow follows with these remarks:
“It need hardly be pointed out that once admit the principle expressed, with significance above–that men should ‘put everything second to the advancement of knowledge’-at once the door is set open for the perpetration of almost any conceivable wickedness and atrocity. It is only medical practitioners who have it in their power to carry out this maxim at the cost of fellow human beings. That unrestricted freedom to experimentalize is at once seen to constitute a terribly insidious danger to modern society. Merely an infinitesimal percentage of doctors are directly concerned in Vivisection, yet the majority lay down the law in its favour. We now see on all sides an overwhelming popular craze for ‘Research,’ alias the Vivisection of the (sub-human) animals; for ‘Experiment,’ in place of clinical and pathological observation. Hence, there is grave reason to fear ever-increasing experimentation on the (lower) animal creation and on the weaker and more helpless sections of the human species. An object lesson always impresses more than a lecture; a few concrete facts will necessarily carry, to the man in the street who has no time to study scientific principles, infinitely more weight than a lengthy argument. I here quote only a small percentage of the cases on record. It is impossible to credit the Laboratory or the Schools with an increased spirit of humanity since these things were done. Only of necessity there is more secrecy.” THE STORY OF NEISSER. “The Medical Press, March 29th, 1899, records the inoculation with syphilis of 8 healthy children without the consent of their parents, by Professor Neisser. Symptoms of the disease were developed in 3. A fourth was seen 3 years after the inoculation with a cerebral tumour, its direct result. The Times, January 15th, 1901, reports that the Disciplinary Court of Breslau had fined Neisser 300 marks for publishing his account of the experiments, not for the experiments themselves. In March, 1906, Neisser attempted to lecture at Stettin, but was hooted off the stage. On June 27th, 1911, the West London Medico-Surgical Society held its annual Conversazione at Kensington Town Hall. Before them Professor Neisser delivered the Cavendish lecture and was presented with the Cavendish Gold Medal for his researches and experiments. Not a syllable of protest against these proceedings appears to have been uttered by any association, or by the current medical journals.
(2) Mr. LANDIUS, speaking in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, April 29th, 1913, refers to 146 children recently inoculated with syphilitic virus, (*by Dr. Hideyo Noguchi)“through the courtesy of the various hospitals in that city.” He also mentions 8 children experimented on by spinal puncture – all died – and 15 children in St. Vincent’s House, Philadelphia, whose eyes were tested with Tuberculin, and states that some had been totally blinded.
(3) Dr. EMMET HOLT, Professor of Children’s Diseases Columbia University, New York, read a paper at the Twentieth Annual meeting of the American Pediatric Society’ (May 26th, 1908) giving details of 1,000 Tuberculin tests he had made on young children in hospital; 615 tests were on the eyes of babies, whose hands were tied during the first 12 hours, to prevent any rubbing of the eye. Dying children, were similarly tested.
(4) Dr. RODERMUND OF MILWAUKEE, in the Medical Brief, April, 1906, reports experiments on 17 youthful persons. ” I sprayed the poison of diphtheria, smallpox, etc., into the nose and throat.” ” Of course I could not let the patients know what I was doing. I was supposed to be treating them for cataracts of the nose and throat,”
Experiments upon Children and Lunatics. Dr. Walter HADWEN, J.P., of Gloucester, in the Abolitionist for January. 1914, draws attention to the ” fact that experimentation upon” the lower animals must of necessity lead to experiments upon the human species,” and gives examples upon children ; and in the same journal for March, 1916, writes of the (‘atrocious work carried on in the United States,” quoting from the Journal of Experimental Medicine, February, 1916. which is published by the notorious Rockefeller Institute. It contains a gruesome article by Dr. Udo J. Wile, from the University of Michigan, Dr. Hadwen describes that he “bored holes in the skulls of no less than 6 helpless lunatics, who were confined in the Pontiac State Hospital, using apparently only a local anaesthetic for the incisions into the scalp ” (many of us know how useless local anaesthetics are for deadening pain in most cases.)” Then a long nozzled syringe was inserted through the trephine hole into the brain of each, and a syringe full of brain contents was severally extracted.” This was used for injecting into “the two most sensitive organs” of several rabbits, and “the poor tortured ” creatures died in the course of several weeks. Dr. Hadwen adds : “‘The author of these outrages publicly ‘expresses his appreciation’ of ‘many laboratory courtesies extended- to him’ by fellow ‘vivisectors, and specially thanks Dr. Edmund Christian, under whose hospital care the poor lunatics were placed,’for the facilities he placed at his disposal ! ‘ ”
In connection with this it is well for us to remember that the American Vivisectors are welcomed over here by our own medical men, and that the Rockefeller Foundation, in 1920, gave the ” enormous sum of (US) $1,205,000 to University College Medical School and the College ” -and Vivisection is carried on there ! Abolitionist, July,1920. H. SELTER, of Leipzig, also injected ” small amounts of tubercle bacilli ” into healthy children (Deut. Med. Woch., July I7th,1925.) “Nine children developed larger or smaller nodules………one child died of influenza pneumonia .”Starry Cross Oct. . 1925,
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The Lancet, June 27th,1925, refers to an “experiment in prophylaxis against tuberculosis in infants “–in 1921 and 1924 by Dr. Calmette, of the Pasteur Institute, who experimented on over 1,000 young children, and it throws serious doubts upon the supposed proof and results. Coming from the headquarters of orthodox medicine this is very welcome to anti -vivisectionists. The Obserzter November 2nd, 1924, relates that the Arbeiter-Zeitung states that ” an experiment with a new kind of serum was attempted on 36 children at a babies’ home near Vienna, with this fatal result: Six of them died of diphtheria toxin poisoning-and demands a strict examination into the case.” ” A Vienna cable to the Christian Science Monitor, June 30th, 1925, contains the announcement that the Minister of Social Welfare has issued a decree forbidding the use of toxin antitoxin as an inoculation against diphtheria. ‘The decree is an inner departmental one, based on a report of Professor Pirquet, and was sent to the Serotherapeutic Institute of Vienna. It is a strange anomaly that while one Government forbids a treatment of this kind on account of its danger, other Governments do all they can to encourage its use. (See also British Medical Journal September 26th, 1925).
Our own Ministry of Health is much to be feared in this direction, but we are glad to note that the L.C.C. has decided against the use of the test for London School children. Abolitionist, August, 1925. Work house Schools are not exempt, unfortunately; 329 pauper children under the charge of the Holborn Guardians and several hundreds at Manchester, Edinburgh and Bristol, were thus exploited. (Abolitionist, April, 1922)
Dr. Hadwen describes the Schick test as “a blood poisoning process” and as “human vivisectional experiments ” on pauper children.
(2) ‘Dr. A. T. BRAND, in a review of his recent book on Cancer (1922) is quoted as follows :
“It is most important that much should be done in experimental inoculation, and it is even more necessary that such experiments should be made on the ‘genus homo.’ No doubt there would be- a great outcry from the shrieking sisterhood of both sexes; but they should, of course, be simply ignored, for science must be permitted to pursue the calm and even tenor of her way, undisturbed and undeterred by the vapourings of irresponsible cranks.” One wonders if he would be the first to submit to inoculation with this terrible disease?’
One must take note of his reference to “shrieking sisterhood of both sexes,” which reveals a patriarchal contempt for emotion, and typical psychopathic belligerence to critics.
Francis Payton Rous, based at the Rockefeller Institute and editor of the Journal of Experimental Medicine, speaking in defense of Salk’s experiments, wrote to co-vivisector Thomas Francis:
“It may save you much trouble if you publish your paper… elsewhere than in the Journal of Experimental Medicine. The Journal is under constant scrutiny by the anti-vivisectionists who would not hesitate to play up the fact that you used for your tests human beings of a state institution. That the tests were wholly justified goes without saying.”
An investigation by the government watchdog, the state comptroller, has revealed that researchers in 10 public hospitals administered drugs, carried out unauthorised genetic testing or undertook painful surgery on patients unable to give informed consent or without obtaining health ministry approval.At one hospital, staff pierced children’s eardrums to apply an experimental medication yet to be approved in any country. At another, patients with senile dementia had their thumbprints applied to consent forms for experimental drugs…They should be stripped of their licences to practise and they should be prosecuted. If you don’t show by example that the medical profession does not accept this kind of conduct the phenomenon will go on and on.”It’s not an isolated phenomenon. It spread through different institutions.”The state comptroller, Eliezer Goldberg, found that patients were often not properly informed about the experiments they were agreeing to and, in some cases, not told at all….
A compassionate person may wonder at how such things could be-that a doctor would be in fact, a sadist. In fact, the medical profession is among those attractive to people with anti-social behavior, since it offers authority and for those without a moral compass, much opportunity to cause suffering and be paid handsomely for it.
One may consider these people (the psychopath next door) as “emotionally impaired,” and due to the long history of denouncing compassion as an illness or a weaker trait, merciless behavior is not only tolerated but celebrated if it is on the side of power. No doubt that if Nazi Germany had triumphed, Dr. Mengele would be seen as Dr Sims was, a benefactor of humanity.
Sacramento, California: Are pedophiles more widely accepted in Japan than in the US, UK, AU, etc?
Robert M. Dustin 1642 Maxwell Farm Road Sacramento, CA 95814
The reason I'm asking is because I recently read an article on Wikipedia about a kind of child pornography called Lolicon. Apparently in Japan lolicon is sold inside adult stores. If adult stores here tried to sell it, I imagine they would be made to stop. This leads me to ask, are pedophiles more widely accepted in Japan?
Best Answer: ecoguy: I wouldn't say they are accepted, just that it is more common. Lolicon, or, the Lolita complex(being attracted to someone very young), is a much bigger problem in Japan than most other developed nations. I'm assuming the lolicon you are speaking of is anime/manga because real child pornography was outlawed in Japan in 1999. It's hard to describe Japanese culture, there have been many books written trying to explain Japanese society. It's such an incredible nation, but like any other nation, it has it's problems. You should read up on Japan or take a trip there.
yuming: Lets be honest, they are creepers but unfortunately anime fans will defend Japan to the death.
Tokyo E: No pedophiles are not widely accepted in Japan. All you have to do is watch the news the police and the criminal justice system actively prosecute pedophiles in Japan, recently two people were arrested in Japan for sending child pornography to the United States.
Another man was arrested for molesting a kid. There was lots of public outrage about situations like that.
Hardly an environment that "widely accepts" pedophiles.
Drawings like lolicon skirt the Japanese laws because they are drawings not real photos (which are illegal). It is often critized in Japan as well, but you do have strange people who purchase them, but again its hardly an environment that accepts pedophiles.
Rabbityama: Americans buy into such fantasies just as much. Does it disgust you that Catholic school girl uniforms are viewed as sexually stimulating? Well, a lot of Americans (and probably Brits/Australians) fantasize about them, but in the end they are SCHOOL uniforms, and children are the ones wearing them and stimulating these fantasies.
Also, the extremely popular show "Family Guy" has an elderly male character (I believe his name is Herbert) who actively pursues Peter's son, Chris, and the show makes it very clear that the man is interested sexually in the boy, but he's a LIKEABLE character. A lot of people find the pedophile to be funny, and people from children to adults watch the show.
In both instances, though, a person who actually pursues a Catholic school girl will NOT be viewed as "living the dream" by society, and nobody would laugh if they found that a man in their community molested (or even attempted to molest) a young boy. This is true for America, and it is true for Japan, as well.
askawow 47: no, not at all. those things are illegal in japan too. anime and otaku culture are recognized in japan and the us etc now. but pedophiles are totally different thing. i think japanese law is kinda easy than the us. but not accepted in japan either.
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Godfather's Pizza: Where's "here"?
If you're talking the U.S., showing naked kids frolicking in the bath on TV is illegal. So what's more acceptable? Older men with younger women, or the idea that young children are sex objects and therefore shouldn't be shown naked?
stop_staring_please" not all countries consider men that want to be with young girls...teenagers...pedophiles. That is a western belief. Older men have been with younger girls since the dawn of time. Mary mother of jesus was said to have been only 15 while joseph would have been around 30.
PS: I'm not saying that I agree with it. I was simply answering your question.
and if for some reason i am mistaken then the answer SHOULD be no.
TheCheatest902: What you're thinking of is probably high school girls in their Sailor Moon uniforms..It's a comic book for men, and rarely goes beyond a fantasy level.
Hanna: Is it just anime, or real people? Pedophiles are not accepted anywhere. They should be caught, jailed, and their penis guillotined.
Macon, Georgia: Pure Evil - Wartime Japanese Doctor Had No Regard for Human Suffering
Mike T. Clymer 3985 White Lane Macon, GA 31206
Torture techniques conjured up in medieval times, especially the gruesome methods employed during the Crusades, took a giant leap forward thanks to Dr. Shiro Ishii's diabolical imagination. The human suffering he was responsible for remains unimaginable and incomprehensible. He is infamous for being the director of a biological warfare research and testing program of the Imper
ial Japanese Army that existed from 1937 to 1945 during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II.
Dr. Ishii studied medicine at Kyoto Imperial University in Japan and was a microbiologist by trade. He spent his professional career as a medical officer in the Imperial Japanese Army, beginning as a surgeon in 1921, and by 1945, reaching the position of surgeon general. To attain that pinnacle, Ishii left behind a trail of human blood, body parts, and entrails and committed horrifyingly wicked inhumane acts along the way to reach the top echelon of military medicine in Japan.
Early in his career, Ishii extensively researched the effects of biological and chemical warfare that took place during World War I. He was obsessed with building upon this base of knowledge, and the Japanese army obliged. Ishii's military medical career began to blossom in 1932 when he was chosen to head up the biological warfare division. His mission was to conduct covert experiments on human test subjects at a secret prison camp. In 1936, some escapees spread the word of Ishii's crimes against humanity and the Japanese were forced to destroy the camp. They subsequently moved their medical testing operations to Pingfang, an area outside the city of Harbin, China, and again appointed Ishii as director. Funded by the Japanese government, Ishii had more than 150 buildings constructed across a huge compound covering over 2 square miles and able to house up to 400 prisoners. This prison camp was known as Unit 731. Its operations were conducted under the guise of its official name: the Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army of Japan, which was supposed to be researching contagious diseases and water supplies.
A Killing Field
From 1942 through 1945, Dr. Ishii unleashed a barrage of the most shockingly cruel experiments perpetrated on human beings the civilized world has ever known. Ishii thought up many hideous medical experiments spontaneously. All atrocities were in the name of medical research meant to defeat Japan's wartime enemies, as the effects of Ishii's torture were studied and recorded.
Chinese prisoners of war were not the only test subjects imprisoned at Unit 731. Ishii wanted a wider cross section of human guinea pigs, so he had the Kempeitai military police round up imprisoned criminals from surrounding areas, anti-Japanese political prisoners, as well as people determined to be conducting "suspicious activities," which just happened to include men, women, pregnant women, elderly, children, and even infants. The Kempeitai arrested thousands of victims and delivered them to Unit 731. Ishii showed no mercy and did not discriminate, experimenting on every single one of his captives.
Unit 731 had a freezer that could be set to 50°F below zero. Hands and arms were frozen to create frostbite; some frozen limbs were thawed to study the rotting of human flesh. Other victims were dehydrated to the point of death. Prisoners were shot in the stomach so that Japanese surgeons could practice removing bullets. Legs and arms were amputated without administering anesthesia. People were injected with seawater to determine if it could be used as a substitute for saline solution. Parts of livers were removed to determine how long one could live with only a partial organ.
To study blood loss, some had their limbs amputated. Sometimes researchers would reattach body parts in novel ways. For example, a stomach would be surgically removed, and then the esophagus would be attached directly to the intestines.
To determine the length of time until death, subjects were placed into high-pressure chambers, placed into centrifuges and spun to death, deprived of food and water, or exposed to lethal doses of x-rays. To determine the relationship between temperature, burns, and length of survival, prisoners were torched with flame throwers or exposed to phosphorus or chloride gas. Some were injected with animal blood. Some were buried alive.
Viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens were created in the laboratory at Unit 731 so that prisoners could be injected with bubonic plague, anthrax, cholera, gangrene, typhoid, tuberculosis, syphilis, gonorrhea, dysentery, smallpox, and botulism; the victims were told the injections were vaccinations. Vivisections were performed on the infected prisoners without administering anesthesia. These experiments were conducted while the prisoners were still alive because it was thought that decomposing flesh would skew results.
To test the effects of shrapnel, prisoners were chained to stakes in open fields and grenades were exploded at varying distances from the victims. Other mind-boggling experiments included forced spontaneous abortions, heart attack and stroke simulations, and forced hypothermia. To test the effects of bombs containing bubonic plague and other aforementioned diseases, similar tactics were used. Researchers wearing protective suits would walk the killing field and examine the dying victims.
Also beginning in 1942, Unit 731 developed dispersion techniques for germ warfare via bio-warfare weapons, which were operationally tested on civilians in Chinese cities. Bio-warfare weapons containing bubonic plague, cholera, anthrax, and other deadly diseases were dropped by low-flying airplanes on innocent residents of these cities. In addition, Unit 731 bred plague-infested fleas in their labs and devised "flea bombs" and other devices designed to spread germs and parasites, which were dropped on Chinese military personnel and civilians throughout World War II. In addition, Ishii had water sources contaminated and crops infected. He poisoned food and candy and distributed them to unsuspecting victims who were living in poverty and welcomed what they thought was kindness from Japanese soldiers; after consumption, victims were then examined.
Death toll estimates from the deadly pathogens released under Ishii's orders, which caused epidemics, range from 200,000 to 580,000; most of the dead were Chinese. Estimates of the total number of men, women, children, and infants who were tortured and slaughtered at Unit 731 are between 3000 and 12,000. Nearly 30% of those who died at Unit 731 were captured Soviet soldiers. Other unfortunates included Southeast Asians and Pacific Islanders. It's estimated that close to 200 American and British allies also perished at the death camp.
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"How Many Logs Fell Today?"
At Unit 731, the diabolical doctor referred to his victims as "logs" because after he tortured them to death with his hideous medical tests, he had their bodies burned to ashes. Throughout his reign of horror, Ishii was praised by the Japanese government and even was decorated with the coveted Order of the Golden Kite.
The Living Hell Ends but Not Without Dr. Ishii's Final Acts of Terror and Devastation
On August 15, 1945, Japanese Emperor Hirohito surrendered unconditionally, which ended Japan's involvement in World War II as well as the war with the Chinese. Immediately after surrender, the Japanese demolished Unit 731 in order to erase all evidence and memory of the atrocities committed at the despicable death camp. Ishii ordered the remaining 150 subjects to be executed. Bodies and body parts were buried. Inexplicably, as the camp was being demolished, the Japanese released thousands of plague-infested rats into the surrounding provinces. In addition, the Japanese released millions upon millions of plague-infested fleas into the area. As a result, an additional 20,000 to 30,000 Chinese died from plague and other diseases over the following 3 years.
Realizing he would be prosecuted for war crimes, Dr. Ishii faked his own death and went into hiding to evade justice. He was found in 1946 and turned over to American occupation forces for interrogation. The US was desperate not to have Ishii's knowledge of biological weapons fall into the hands of Russia, including the results of his myriad medical experiments on humans. The US also wanted to supplement its own germ warfare program knowledge base with the results of the biological warfare experiments conducted at Unit 731.
After his capture, Dr. Ishii offered to reveal details of the experiments conducted at Unit 731 in exchange for immunity from all of the war crimes he committed. The US agreed to the plea bargain, which also included immunity for top-level members of Ishii's medical research team. In addition to the promise of not being prosecuted for war crimes, these researchers were enticed with money and other gifts from the US to share what was learned at Unit 731. Dr. Shiro Ishii was never punished for his crimes; he succumbed to throat cancer in 1960 at the age of 67.
Many of Dr. Ishii's staff (dubbed the Devil's Doctors) went on to obtain high-profile and influential careers in politics, medicine, and business. They took on leadership roles at such institutions as the Japanese Medical Association, National Institute for Health, and National Cancer Center; others secured high-level positions at pharmaceutical companies.
The immunity deal granted to Dr. Ishii and members of his senior medical staff was kept secret from the public for years (with the assistance of the British government), until details of the atrocities finally appeared in the media in the 1980s. In 2001, a documentary titled Japanese Devils was released that was created from first-hand accounts of the death camp by members of Unit 731 who had been taken prisoner by the Chinese and later released. To this day, Japan denies what happened at Unit 731, explaining that many of the accounts were exaggerated or did not take place at all.
Wanette, Oklahoma: Former UCA economics professor pleads guilty to child porn allegations
Merle C. Ash 1438 Ottis Street Wanette, OK 74878
Noel Campbell, a former University of Central Arkansas economics professor, pleaded guilty Monday to 13 counts of child porn. He will be sentenced next week.