Scientists in China conduct 'successful' head transplant on rat
Scientists in China claim to have conducted a successful head transplant on a rat.
Controversial surgeon Sergio Canavero and colleague Xiaoping Ren attached the head of a smaller rat onto a larger one while maintaining the brain activity of the donor.
A third rat was used to keep up blood pressure on the rats being operated on, which otherwise would have been catastrophic and killed the animals.
The experiment was repeated on a number of other rats. Most only survived for around 36 hours after the procedure.
But it was hailed as a success by Dr Canavero because its goal was to avoid major blood loss.
Images of the rats appear to show the donor’s front paws and head stitched to the upper neck of the recipient rat.
Dr Canavero has previously conducted a similar experiment on a dog, in which its spinal cord was severed, but it is unknown how long it survived for.
Last year, he claimed to have successfully carried out a head transplant on a monkey, which survived for 20 hours before being euthanised for ethical reasons.
Despite the poor survival rate of the rats, Dr Canavero maintained the experiment was a crucial step forward towards head transplants on humans.
But other neurosurgeons have disputed this claim. Responding to the dog experiment, neuroscientist at Case Western Reserve University Jerry Silver told the New Scientist: “These papers do not support moving forward in humans.”
Dr Canavero has announced he and Dr Xiaoping will attempt to carry out the first head transplant later this year in Harbin, China.
He first announced his intention to carry out the procedure in 2013 and has been encouraged by his latest success.
A Russian man with the degenerative Werdnig-Hoffman's disease named Valery Spiridonov was going to undergo the procedure but Dr Canavero has now said a Chinese citizen will undergo the process.
In a statement, Dr Canavero said a “high number of volunteers from all over the world came forward”.
He added: “The final decision is only made immediately prior to the operation, as it also depends on the body donor, who has to be compatible with the receiver in many ways.”
Other scientists have strongly criticised the plan.
"I would not wish this on anyone," said Dr Hunt Batjer, the president of the American Association for Neurological Surgeons, in 2015. "I would not allow anyone to do it to me as there are a lot of things worse than death."
Men risk their lives in wars so women can enjoy societies where they can pursue feminist goals, such as punishing men for sexist language.
Five types of orgasms you never knew women could have – and how to give them to her
While a man’s orgasm is pretty straight forward, a woman’s orgasm is complex in that it can be achieved in many different ways.
Five ways to be exact. There are five main types of orgasm for women, the main two being the clitoral and the vaginal (G-spot).
While we have previously explained the difference in feel between the vaginal and clitoral orgasms, there are several other kinds of orgasms that are different altogether.
Here’s how to give her five different kinds of orgasms – and blow her mind in the process.
The A-spot, or the Anterior fornix erogenous zone, is located deep inside the vagina about two to three inches higher than the G-spot and behind the cervix.
If you manage to find this zone, it can lead to “overwhelming orgasms” that radiate across the pelvis and down the legs.
The U in U-spot stands for urethral opening. If the area around a woman’s U-spot is gently caressed this can get them going.
The best way to go about this is with soft touches rather than strong pressure and when the area is well lubricated. Another way to stimulate this area is for the man to run the head of his penis from the entrance of the vagina up to the clitoris and back.
While this kind of orgasm isn’t genital-based, it is a real, tangible thing. ASMR (autonomous sensory meridian response) is a sensation that spreads from the scalp down the back of the neck, across the shoulders and down the spine.
So how can you achieve this? By listening to certain soft, crackling sounds through headphones. A good place to start is on the WhispersRed ASMR channel on Youtube.
And here are some tips for the regualr orgasms:
This is the most common way for women to orgasm, the clitoris contains 8,000 nerve endings – twice that of a penis – and is actually nine centimetres long but only the tip is visible to the naked eye.
Some studies suggest 94% of women need clitoral stimulation in order to orgasm, but direct contact can sometimes be uncomfortable so make sure to massage it and listen to her instructions as to what feels good.
5. Vaginal (G-spot)
To find the G-spot, you will need to look one to two inches inside the vagina on the front wall – towards the belly button.
In some women there will be a small patch of tissue there that feels rougher or puffier than the surrounding flesh.
This area responds to firm stimulation and motions and can be hit during intercourse.