Philippines / Western Visayas



Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / History / Colonial Period

The history of Negros is closely interwoven with that of neighboring Panay, from which it is separated only by the 30km (20mi) wide Guimaras Strait.

According to the earliest written accounts,the expedition of Legazpi touched shore in 1665. The integration of the island into the Spanish Empire was carried out subsequently to a large extent by the colonizers most efficient instrument, the Roman Catholic Church. The first missions were established by the Augustinians in Binalbagan, Tanjay and ilog in 1575, 1580 and 1584 respectively.

During the 17th and 18th centuries, roughly what is now Negros Occidental was administered from Iloilo. The remaining part (now Negros Oriental) was controlled by the local government of Cebu. In 1734, a separate military district was created, covering the whole island under the jurisdiction of its own corregidor (Spanish Judge). This official was vested with judicial power and authorized to collect tribute. The local capital was established in Ilog, but later moved to Himamaylan and from there, in 1849, to Bacolod. It was, however, not until 1856 that Negros became an independent province, with Emilio Saravia as its first Governor.

The second half of the 19th century was marked by rapid social and economic changes.In the early 1800's a new policy was enacted which opened the colony to foreign trade and investment. Foreigners soon had a quasi-monopoly in export and import. From 1820 to 1870, the Philippines jumped from a subsistence economy to one of agricultural export.Together with US companies, British firms were most successful throughout the archipelago.

When Iloilo was opened to foreign trade in 1855, the post of a British vice-consul was created in this thriving urban center. Nicolas Loney, a young, enterprising man from Plymouth, England, was the first to be appointed to this office. Later named father of the sugar industry in Negros and Panay, he did a lot to promote sugar as a cash crop grown on large plantations.

Sugar Arrives

In partnership with another Englishman, Ker, Loney imported sugar cane seeds from Sumatra and machinery from England and Scotland. They arranged the necessary financial transactions and, finally, exported sugar. The first shipments went to Australia (1859) China and Great Britain (863). Sugar produced in Negros soon became the region's major export.

The topography of the eastern part of the island, consisting of plains and rolling hills, was ideal for the crop. Growing demand on the world market caused production to soar. The agri-industrial development was characterized by very labor-intensive production methods and by the acquisition of new land rather than by investments in technological innovations for more efficient cultivation of existing plantations. As a result, an increasing demand for a larger labor force led to a massive migration from neighboring islands, mainly from Panay.

From a sparsely populated rain forest, the coastal plains of Negros Occidental were transformed into the most productive agricultural area of the archipelago. The tribes of Negritos, the island's original population, were driven into the central mountains. From 1850 to 1893, the population of Negros Occidental increased more than ten fold from 30,000 to about 320,000.

In the same time period, 814 sugar mills were constructed. In a parallel development,land was acquired by a small number of native and Chinese-mestizo families. Their agricultural enterprises, the haciendas, were described as communities in themselves", often consisting of a privately owned village inside a closed compound, dominated by the fortress like residence of the landlord.

A pyramidal social stratification took shape, characterized by distinct vertical differences. The levels of the pyramid were: 1.A small capitalist elite of omnipotent hacienderos. 2.former small landowners who stayed as cropsharing tenants after having mortgaged their farms to the haciendero when in need of capital. 3. Overseers and managers to supervise and organize the work. 4. The sacadas, the laborers earning their daily wage whenever they were needed.

The last category formed the vast majority of the hacienda's residents. Their salaries were at a subsistence level. Sacadas were usually hired seasonally, and in periods of time when there was no demand for their work, they were forced to take loans which kept them constantly dependent on their landlords, reducing them to mere debt-slaves.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / History / Revolution

These depressed conditions created a growing discontent which, in 1896, led to the first revolutionary conflict in Negros, also called the Babaylanes Insurrection. The movement was under the leadership of Dionisio Sigobela, later known as the legendary Papa lsio (Isio the Pope). It fought under the banner of a fervent nationalism, revived traditional pre-Christian religious practises and demandedradical land reform.

The movement rapidly gained adherents whomassed as rebel forces in mountain areas, mainly on the slopes of Mt. Kanlaon. Fromthere, the Babaylanes undertook several attacks against neighboring haciendas. They also declared their sympathy for the nationalist Katipunan insurrection, although this movement was locally led by prominent planters.

Taking advantage of a brief alliance with Papa Isio, the Katipuneros, under the local command of Aniceto Lacson and Juan Araneta, staged a coup d'etat which on November 6, 1898, swept the Spanish administration from power on Negros. Aniceto Lacson was elected first President of the provisional government of Negros in Bacolod City.

In the eastern part of Negros, the colonial era came to an end November 24, 1898 when Demetrio Larena took over as President. November 27, 1898, a cantonal form of government was adopted by representatives of Oriental and Occidental Negros, declaring the island an independent "Federal Republic of Negros", subdivided into two provinces, Negros Oriental and Negros Occidental.

However, the revolutionaries in Luzon, under the command of General Aguinaldo, rejected the move. The aim of the Luzon revolutionaries was to establish provincial councils under a centralized command.

In addition to reprisals from the troops of Aguinaldo, the officials of the new republic had to fear another rival for power. Representing the social elite, they considered their previous allies, the Babaylanes, a threat to internal security. In an attempt to bribe Babaylanes leader Papa Isio, they invited him to Bacolod, showered him with respect and decorations and bestowed on him the title "military chief of La Castellana".

However, distrust and fear remained with the landlords. Only three months after the declaration of independence, on February 11 1898, the new government contacted US General Otis, formally seeking protection under the sovereignty of the US. Negros Occidental was the first province of the archipelago to take such a step. The Stars and Stripes was raised over Dumaguete (Negros Oriental), April 30, 1899. Col. James Smith (who would become Governor General in 1906) was the first military governor of Negros.

Immediately following the treaty between the Negros Committee and the US, lsio Papa withdrew his allegiance from the local government. He assumed the leadership in a fierce fight against both, the new colonial power and the prevailing social order. The insurgents instigated mass uprisings in the vast haciendas along the slopes of Mt. Kanlaon and razed several towns in the course of a few months.

It took US forces and their local lackeys eight years to subdue the insurrection. Finally cornered by government forces, Isio Papa surrendered to an American officer August 6, 1907. He was first sentenced to death, but the punishment was later mitigated to life imprisonment. Papa Isio died in New Bilibid Prison near Manila in 1911.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / History / The Sugar Crisis

The meteoric ascent of the sugar baron's wealth suffered a hard landing in the aftermath of a disastrous plunge of the world market prices of sugar from 1976 up to the mid 80's. This global crisis was caused by oversupply and by a cutback in the importations of the main sugar buyer, the US (before the Philippines had greatly benefitted from the US import boycott on Cuban sugar).

As the low price for sugar prevailed for years, a number of big companies, supporting industries and sub-contractors, were forced to shut down. Tens of thousands of sugar workers and thousands of other employees lost their jobs. Reports of children suffering and dying of hunger sent a ripple around the world. The reports claimed that workers were being kept like serfs on the large haciendas, bereft of dignity, and vegetating in subhuman conditions.

Independent observers, however, held that the depressing pictures were grossly exaggerated. Moreover, intelligence reports of the local military claimed that the communist New People's Army. (NPA) devised disinformation drives to create the image of a starving Negros. Critics also assailed some questionable methods of fund-raising by relief organizations and pointed at the sensationalist exposes by some of the mass media.

Official statistics confirm that over 30% of children under 14 were "severely or moderately" undernourished. Medical experts, however, do not explain this deficiency by extraordinary poverty, but by lack of sanitation and proper education about nutrition. Witnesses state that pictures used in soul stirring pleas and political propaganda did not show victims of starvation, but children suffering from emaciating disease, such as can be found even in the wealthiest countries.

Nevertheless, the region had slid into an economic depression; a fertile ground had been created for a communist insurgency. The Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) and, its armed wing, the New People's Army (NPA), gained ground in almost all parts of the island. In 1987 they had already obtained strong influence in the so-called CHICKS area in Negros Occidental. CHICKS stands for the towns of Cawayan, Hinoba-an, ilog, Candoni Kabankalan and Sipalay. The law and order situation in Negros deteriorated rapidly.

In 1988, the island developed into one of the major battle grounds between the NPA and government forces. The NPA boasted of 130,000 supporters, organized in various groups. They claimed to have more firepower than the NPA of Panay, Cebu and Bohol islands combined. However, at that time, the movement had already passed its peak.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / History / Conflicts in the Revolutionary Movement

As in other parts of The Country , in Negros too, the pragmatic leadership of the NPA was swept away in 1987/1988 by a group of dogmatic hard-liners. While activities of some very successful deep penetration government agents gave a decisive impact to internal purges, suspected "moles" also served as a pretext for the removal of members whose loyalty did not belong to the party's new leadership.

Official sources claim that hundreds of CPP/NPA partisans were liquidated and their bodies dumped into hidden mass graves. The alleged purge disenchanted many of the more liberal minded and pragmatic members. Allegedly fearing for their own lives, many of these "moderate" leftists chose to escape by moving in with distant relatives or even deserting to the government.

Analysts opine today that the insurgency forces suffered heavy losses in manpower, expertise and credibility due to the internal dissent, intrigues and power-struggles. Some, however, argue that the NPA will emerge from this crisis as a better organized and streamlined monolithic block, gaining new strength from the solidarity among its remaining followers and from a more coherent political concept.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / History / Facets of War

The leadership of the CPP/NPA knew from the beginning that the struggle could not be won just on a military level. It rather had to encompass political action and educational efforts as well. Therefore, from its early days, the revolutionary movement had put a lot of effort on ideological instruction and the building of a political mass base.

Because of its Maoist origin, the communist movement had furthermore concentrated on The Country side. However, it was later analyzed as wrong to work exclusively in rural areas when there was a rapidly growing urban population and an increasing concentration of information networks, means of production and financial resources in urban centers.

The rebels' prime objective during the 70's and early 80's was to create a "revolutionary situation". But this aim was jeopardized by the toppling of the Marcos dictatorship by moderate forces in 1986 and by an economic upturn as well as pledges of far reaching social reforms by the Aquino administration.

These factors ultimately gave rise to a redesign of the NPA's short and medium term objectives and to changes in their military disposition in Negros.

Due to the decrease in strength of the rebel forces, direct attacks against police and army units were reduced. The local military claims that at the same time, the NPA was increasingly resorting to the "human shield strategy", which endangers civilian lives with premeditation. Rebel forces who apply this trategy allegedly move in such a way that any counterattack by government forces would cause as many civilian casualties as possible.

The local military also claims that a variation of the human shield strategy allegedly led, purely for propaganda purposes, to a kind of biological warfare waged against innocent civilians. In the course of a massive government military offensive (Operation Thunderbolt) carried out in the area of Sipalay (southern Negros) in 1989, civilians displaced numbered between 35,103 (official sources) and 53,259 ("Kapwa News, July 28, 1989). Most of them had been asked by the government to evacuate their homes to avoid being caught in a cross-fire.

These internal refugees were moved to different centers under the care of the DSWD (Dept. of Social Welfare and Development). The biggest concentration of refugees was in Sipalay and Candoni. The shelters were soon overcrowded. In May and June, 1989, epidemics of measles and diarrhea ravaged the camps and were considered to have caused the death of 280 children (according to the Catholic Church).

The left accused the military of being responsible for the disaster. Witnesses presented by the military, however, accused the insurgents to have taken willful advantage of the refugee centers overcrowding, their lack of proper sanitation and of logistic shortages of the government s assistance program. These military witnesses claimed that NPA agents infected drinking water and food with pathogens causing intestinal diseases in such a way that it would not create suspicion.

This accusation was modified by other informants of the local military who claimed the insurgents brought a large number of families with children carrying highly contagious diseases (like measles) to the centers. The local military claims that in order to conceal this covert sabotage and to gain sympathy as "brave Samaritans", the insurgents cooperated with medical teams during subsequent assistance operations.

Insurgents and the military alike blamed each other of exploiting the children's deaths in refugee camps for psychological warfare.Who was right or wrong has become extremely difficult to establish. The head of the Provincial Health Services, Dr. De a Rama refused with emphatic stress to "make any comment on such a delicate issue".

The above case is just one example of how both sides in the isurgency war not only use bullets but bulletins as well in order to weaken the opponent. While the insurgents claim that the military has for years discredited the rebel movement by spreading lies, the military in return accuses the insurgents of well organized disinformation campaigns.

According to the local military, the disinformation drives of the rebels aim to discourage foreign and domestic investments and to discredit the infrastructure projects of the government (in particular road construction) and the Agrarian Reform Program, thereby also committing a form of economic sabotage.

The local military claims that disinformation by the rebels has two distinct aspects, often used as complementary parts of a single message. On one side it attacks foreigners, Chinese-Filipinos, government institutions (both civilian and military) and government officials; on the other side, it glorifies leftist guerilla warfare and supports activities which are instrumental to the insurgents aims (such as former CID-commissioner Santiago's appeal to the communists to assist her in the campaign against so-called "illegal aliens"). Disinformation (propaganda) and sabotage are allegedly meticulously coordinated in such a way that they act as mutual reinforcers.

The local military claims that the CCP/NPA also instigates disinformation drives to precede and justify their selective liquidation of government officials, particularly soldiers and policemen. In 1987, the NPA of Negros formed assassination squads modeled after the famous Alex Boncayao Brigade in Metro Manila. Among others who were allegedly secretly "salvaged", these groups shot in Bacolod City at least 13 policemen up to 1989. By highlighting and allegedly exaggerating the involvement of some military and police elements in criminal activities and "human rights violations", and by the dissemination of alleged slanderous rumors, depicting opponents and other inconvenient persons as scalawags, scoundrels and criminals, their assassination is made to appear as "just punishment".

In the explanation of the rebels, however, those executed were indeed "enemies of the people". They claim that the accusations against those killed were not fabricated but true. According to rebel sympathizers, the military only labels the spread of information about such enemies of the people as disinformation campaigns because they want to defend themselves and confuse the people.

Military analysts explain that the objective in the liquidations is not to punish enemies of the people but first to demoralize the police force, second to erode public confidence in the government's ability to maintain law and order (thus discouraging investors), and third to give credibility to countless death-threats by staging spectacular examples. These countless death-threats allegedly are made to force media men to comply with rebel demands, to extort from businessmen revolutionary taxes and to coerce officials into inactivity.

According to the local military, targets of leftist disinformation campaigns are Filipinos of Chinese descent and foreigners. This goes hand in hand with the promotion of an aggressive chauvinistic nationalism with an outright fascist tinge, whipping up fear, distrust, hatred, jealousy and racist sentiments.

According to local military sources, the NPA has a highly sophisticated "disinformation network" into which segments of the mass-media were integrated. This network allegedly fabricates plausible stories out of pure fantasy and half-truths and responsible to integrate them as "well founded facts" into the basic framework of knowledge and beliefs of large segments of the population.

These sources claim that newspapers, radio stations as well as the movie industry are infiltrated by communist agents. Moreover, many editors and reporters are said to give involuntary help by unknowingly picking up well devised rumors originating from the desks of leftist psychological warfare specialists. Others support these drives by fomenting xenophobic sentiments and racism, unaware that they are playing the role of "useful idiots' for the insurgent's cause.

The initiators of fabricated news in Negros, according to military intelligence reports, are a closely-knit group of young university graduates or former students with ties to the regional and national command. They allegedly design the "news material" in accordance with the CPP/NPA operational needs and subsequently take the concocted information to the transmitters who give it the "last touch" and let the messages work on the "masses Transmitters have allegedly been placed into carefully selected private enterprises and organizations which enjoy the confidence and respect of the local populace. Many of these agents are allegedly newspaper columnists, church workers (with a preference for Roman Catholic), school teachers and unionists.

Leftists, however, blame the military of doing exactlly what they claim the CCP/NPA is doing: spreading out carefully designed disinformation about the revolutionaiy movement. They even accuse the military of applying exactly those methods described above: to give the raw material to well placed transmitters who then let the propaganda message work on the masses.

The picture here is somehow typically Filipino. One has to know that in this country, attorneys commonly believe that attack is the best defence. So, if particular charges are filed against one of their clients, attorneys will often advise their clients to file in return exactly the same charges against the complainant -- a kind of echo-chamber strategy.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / History / Janus Church

It was particularly the alleged involvement of functionaries of the Roman Catholic Church which stirred a controversy in Negros. Referring to alleged leftist tendencies of this religious institution in Negros Occidental, some critics have elaborated the following line of thought: The Catholic Church has traditionally geared for a foothold in the center of power, regardless of the social philosophy used to legitimatize the rulers' position or the economic order. Arrangements between the Holy See and Hitler's Third Reich or some communist (i.e. atheist) or military dictatorships bear witness to this attitude throughout history.

These analysts further state that in countries, where a transition of power or a shift to another social system becomes a possibility to reckon with, the Catholic Church's tries to gain influence in some of the promising opposition movements. The analysts claim that it therefore is in pursuit of this strategy, in cool deliberation, that the leadership of the Roman Church in Negros Occidental allowed some of its assistance distributing agencies to be effectively controlled by leftist radicals. This allegedly went to such an extent that money donated with a bona fide attempt to alleviate poverty was used to fund the insurrection.

The former bishop of the diocese of Negros Occidental, Mgr. Antonio Fortich, was even suspected by the military of being an NPA sympathizer and was nicknamed "Kumander Tony". Furthermore, many priests of Negros do allegedly belong to the communist movement. International attention was captured by a case involving two foreign priests, Brian Gore and Neal O'Brien. The two served as parish priests in the town of Kabankalan where on March 12, 1982 four persons were killed, including the town's mayor, Pedro Sola. The two priests together with nine Filipinos were suspected of being involved in the killing and were detained for eight months and, kept under house arrest for nine more months. On July 3, 1984, the two priests were acquitted of the charges, but the more outspoken and charismatic of the two, Brian Gore was hastily deported.

While leftists active in Church organizations and priests active in leftist undertakings both stress that there is an accidental concurrence of objectives, the leaderships of both, the Church and the communist movement believe that they are the ones who have infiltrJanus Churchated the others and make use of them. It can be debated whether the communist movement makes use of Catholic institutions, or whether the Catholic Church makes use of communist groups. For one thing, the church has a foot in both camps and feels that it will survive either, the defeat of the revolutionary movement or the defeat of the current capitalist state. With the Church having influential representatives on both sides, it can easily switch to the winner, regarding those of their representatives on the side of the losers as lost sons who, however, can be taken back into the fold.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / History / Communists or Criminal

The military claims that the insurgents more and more are resorting to methods used by well organized crime syndicates, and that they are actually turning criminal. Allegedly, the NPA on Negros engages in highway-robbery, theft of livestock, extortion of money and large-scale drug-trafficking.

What military sources call "extortion "is referred to by the rebels as "revolutionary taxes". Inside so-called liberated areas (the zones predominantly under NPA influence), the local peasants are asked to surrender a part of their crop and livestock to the NPA. Failure to comply allegedly entails harsh sanctions, including the confiscation of property.

Rebels, however, argue that most of these peasants owe their land titles to the communists' revolutionary land reform program; hence, they had undertaken an obligation to support the movement.

The revenues from the taxation of peasants are of rather modest volume and almost exclusively in kind. They represent only a fraction of what the business community involuntarily contributes to the insurgents' war chest. Intelligence reports of the military claim that thousands of entrepreneurs, from food-stall operators to managers of international corporations, supply the NPA with funds ranging from 50 pesos per month to several millions a year. These "taxpayers" claim that they act under the threat of sabotage, arson, assassination, food-poisoning etc, and they draw a parallel between this "organized blackmail" (as they call it) and the US Mafia's way of extorting money for "protection.

Although they can't show much evidence, the military also claims that the NPA has its finger in the drug-trade. Based on testimony of disgruntled former NPA-members, the military propagated that large-scale drug-trafficking is one of the most secret and best organized operations the NPA rebels have ever undertaken in Negros.

Since the late 1970's the use of marijuana and (since the 1980's) shabu (also called "synthetic cocaine") have risen steadily on Negros. Because these substances are illegal and therefore promise much higher returns than the trade in any legal merchandise, big crime syndicates took control of the production and distribution. The syndicates built up a sophisticated infrastructure moving the most sensitive parts of their logistics into the labyrinths of Bacolod's squatters areas.

In the squatter areas, in the immediate neighborhood of the underworld gangs, the communists had set up their urban organization. Although considered "enemies of the people", the communists were, according to the local military, willing to forge tactical alliances with these gangs in order to participate in the gains from the drug trade.

Cynics point out that the communists not only benefit from the drug trade in financial terms (if they actually do), but also in other ways. As wide-spread drug abuse and a rising drug-related criminality have a detrimental impact on the economic development, it also serves to again create a "revolutionary situation". What would make sabotage through the promotion of drug abuse particularly efficient, is the propaganda leverage it gives: leftists can easily put the blame for these social defects on the "capitalist system".

Leftists, in their answer stress that the military in its attempts in psychological warfare blames the communists of being involved in anything, if it only helps to discredit them.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / History / Military's Counter Insurgency

Negros is an island with a rich landowner class, so armed operations against the NPA were always different than in Mindanao and Samar, two other islands with a strong rebel movement. Whereas on Samar and Mindanao the state force was represented mostly by government troops, Negros always had many militias and private security groups that were financed by landlords. Until the end of the Marcos presidency these militias were organized as the Civil Home Defense Force (CHDF). Critics of the CHDF claimed that the character of this militia was best exemplified by a bloody event September 20, 1985,in the northern Negros town of Escalante. There, CHDF atrocities escalated to a point where the CHDF fired on a group of leftist but unarmed demonstrators. 21 civilians were killed.

Before she was elected President, Cory Aquino promised to disband the notorious (CHDF) which has been charged with numerous human rights violations. Indeed, the CHDF was dissolved in accordance with Article XVIII, Section 24 of the 1987 Constitution. However, as militias have been proven effective in guerilla wars all over the world, the Philippine military didn't want to give up such a valuable force. Therefore, a new militia was created soon after the old one was disbanded, now under the new name Citizens Armed Force I Geographical Units. (CAFGU) but allegedly with much of the same personnel hoodlums, lumpens, semi-criminals. According to leftist critics, these vigilante groups operate outside any legal frame as "armed goons". They accuse the military of having organized them to carry out "dirty jobs" in the anti-insurgency war like summary executions, threats and illegal detentions.

Military sources, however, call these groups a spontaneous expression of the citizens' free will to defend them selves against the "communist onslaught".

While the reputation of the military in general was not quite as bad as that of the CHDF, the military during Marcos times also was considered unprofessional, undisciplined, brutal and corrupt. Many officers were considered not very interested in efficient counter insurgency measures but rather in efficient means to enrich themselves.

After Marcos was toppled, the Philippine military was reorganized and a more professional approach to counter insurgency was introduced. Operation Oplan Mamamayan was launched in 1987 with the objective of regaining the initiative on the battlefield and to win "the minds and hearts" of the people. Since then, offensives were designed as a combination of military attacks, propaganda drives, and social and medical services to affected communities. They were supported by experts in psychological warfare, engineer battalions and medical teams. Coordination was sought with other government agencies particularly those planning infrastructure projects. In August 1989 the Armed Forces unveiled a new master campaign strategy called "Oplan Lambat Bitag". This thrust was aimed at the archipelago's 19 "priority fronts" where the communists were believed to be strongest. Then army chief, Gen. Manuel Cacanando, told a press conference August 16, 1989, that "combat troops are to be deployed to strategic and tactical choke points and key terrain in the hinterlands to deny their use by the enemy" (The Philippine Daily Inquirer, August 17, 1989). The plan provided for a combination of offensive drives by conventional forces and Special Operations Teams (SOT's). SOT's were designed as counterparts of guerilla units and were composed of nine men highly trained in combat, psychological warfare and intelligence.

The AFP's new approach is, according to Negros Occidental Governor Daniel Lacson, decisively weakening the insurgency movement. In July, 1989, the Manila Standard quoted him as saying that the NPA's were "now on the run and their forces had been scattered". Lacson referred in his speech to the Oplan Thunderbolt which the Army had undertaken in May, 1989, under the command of Gen. Reymundo jargue. This offensive succeeded in "temporarily disbanding" regular NPA-units, according to a former head of the Communist Party's Negros Island Trade Union Committee.

Furthermore, the military successfully infiltrated the communist movement with deeppenetration agents (DPA's). Some of them managed to get access to highly sensitive information, such as hideouts, locations of camps, lines of communications and arm caches. Since 1988 several high ranking NPA-leaders fell into the hands of the military. The most spectacular catch on Negros was the arrest of the island commander, Nemesio Demafiles, March 8, 1989, in Bacolod City.

More arrests created an atmosphere of distrust within the NPA leading to the above cited internal purges which further decimated the insurgents' ranks although allegedly failing to uncover most of the government's agents. Cynics have claimed that the government DPA's were probably the ones strongly advocating the internal purges. These cynics reasoned that on the one hand the purges served the propaganda drives of the military just too well to believe that psychological warfare specialists of the government would not have had their "dirty" hands in it. On the other hand, the cynics argued that history has proven that the best protection against becoming a purge victim is to be on the side of the purgers.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / History / Economic Improvement

The economic improvement on Negros at the end of the 80's has also weakened the communist movement considerably. The island, especially Negros Occidental, recorded a spectacular economic growth beginning in 1987. A massive inflow of foreign aid, amounting to millions of US dollars, relieved the worst hardship in the hinterlands. A report edited by the City of Bacolod states: "The whole province saw the proliferation of non-governmental organizations estimated to be about 50 last year ... The hardest hit by the sugar crises were provided community services to acquire knowledge, skills and proper attitudes in analyzing, planning implementing and evaluating socio-economic programs and other income generating activities, thus acquiring for themselves the potentials for development and growth" (June 1988).

There was also a trend toward economic diversification, making the island less vulnerable to fluctuations in the world price of sugar. Many entrepreneurs opted for aqua-culture ventures, especially prawn growing. From a few hectares in 1984, the prawn industry expanded rapidly to cover an area of 2,500 hectares in 1988.

However, just when many sugar barons had decided to diversify, the prices for their traditional crop again raised sharply on the world market. Rising profits led to new investments and finally again, conspicuous consumption.For sugar barons, life had turned full circle.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / History / Autonomy Movement

Many Negros landowners felt unjustly treated when the Aquino administration imposed a land reform program. They formed the Council of Agricultural Producers, CAP, to protect their interests. In 1989, some hacienderos tried to prevent the implementation of the government s Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP) by asking the Supreme Court to declare it unconstitutional. The petition was denied. However, looking at the direction the government's land reform was taking in 1990, many sugar barons didn't feel as threatened anymore about it as they did immediately after the program was announced. Critics claimed the program has as many holes as Swiss cheese or Philippine roads.

In Iloilo in September 1989, CAP launched the Federal Republican. Party. This party declared as its cause the decentralizing of government. A manifesto issued during the meeting criticized the Agrarian Reform Law as"harsh" and demanded an autonomous rule for Negros and Panay. The party planned to gather 3 million signatures to support a move for a constitutional amendment.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Geography

Land Area: 13,328 sqkm (5,146 sqmi)

Topography: The northern and western parts are largely plains and gently rolling hills.

The rest is mountainous.

Mountains: Mt. Kanlaon 2,483m (7,999ft), the highest elevation in the central Philippines.

Mt. Cuernos de Negros near Damin (Negros Oriental) 1,903 m (6,244 ft).

Rivers: Himogaan River (northern Negros), Danao River (northern Negros), Silay River, Bago River, Ilog River (Nesros Occidental)


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Population

Majority group: Ilonggos on the western side, Cebuanos on the eastern side of the island.

Language: Ilonggo is the lingua franca on the west coast (80'/o to 90% speak it in Negros Occidental) while on the east coast, the majority speaks Cebuano (almost 100%).

Minorities: Atis (Negritos), Sulods, Bukidnons.

Island Population: 3,268,000 (1989) Cities, towns (1989)


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Negros Occidental

Bacolod City 317,685; Cadiz City 140278;

Silay City, 131,351; Bago City 126,436; Sagay

115,223; Kabankalan 106,051; San Carlos City

97,766; Escalante 90,167; Cawayan 85,317;

Himamaylan 84,337; Hinigaran 62,830; La

Carlota City 56,624


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Negros Oriental

Guinhulngan 92,172; Bayawan 87,422;

Dumaguete City 78,782; Sta. Catalina 65,123;

Tanjay 64,820; Mabinay 63,177; Bais City

56,010; Siaton 46,048; La Libertad 34,662;

Ayungon 33,603; Basay 32,603; Canlaon City 30,340


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Political Structure

Negros Occidental, pop. 2.3 million; 7,926sqkm

(3,O6Osqm), capital Bacolod City

Negros Oriental, pop. 960,000; 5,402sqkm

(2,O86sqm), capital Dumaguete City


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Bacolod City / The City

Historians believe that the city derived its name from the hilly contours of the terrain where it was initially located. In Ilonggo, a hill is called "buklod". The first settlement was located near what is now called Barrio Granada. Historical accounts of the Roman Catholic Church date the old municipality center to 1770 and mention Bernardo de los Santos as first Spanish Gobernadorcillo.

In 1787, Bacolod was attacked and invaded by Moro warriors. They looted and pillaged,killing hundreds of inhabitants. The raid was the bloodiest event ever in the community. After having ransacked the town, the Moros retreated. The survivors reestablished the settlement along the shore.

Sweet business came to Bacolod in the early 1800's when sugar plantations were established on Negros. In 1849, it became the island's capital. Negros gained temporary independence in 1898, with General Lacson as its first President.

A catastrophe hit the city in 1918 when a cholera epidemic took the lives of almost one third of its inhabitants.

Rapid economic growth started to change the face of Bacolod in the late 1920's. It became a chartered city October 19, 1938, with Alfredo Montelibano Sr. as its first mayor.

After the Japanese occupation which lasted from May 1942 to March 1945, high sugar prices spurred a spectacular expansion which soon made Bacolod one of the most prosperous cities in The Country .

The wealth, however, depended only on one crop, sugar, and therefore did not survive the sugar boom. The plunge of sugar prices after 1976 had disastrous consequences for the city. Thousands of plantations workers who had ‘lost their jobs poured in, desperately searching for jobs. Most of them ended up in one of the fast growing squatter areas Beggars filled the streets, houses decayed and construction almost came to a standstill.

The situation changed in 1987 with some economic improvement. Aside from new investments, help from relief organizations supported the local economy. New ventures in prawn farming proved to be highly profitable and sugar prices rose noticeable.

Widespread drug abuse by minors remained one of Bacolod's major problems. Observers claim that drug addiction is rampant in several high schools. Concerned citizens criticized that glue and solvent-sniffing young children their intoxication often in broad daylight and in the neighborhood of the City Hall. The city government has, however, taken measures to counter this development, such as integration of the out-of-school-youth into community projects, upgrading and development of sports facilities and educational campaigns in the basic political structures (the Barangay and the Purok).

Today, Bacolod is on its way to again become a bustling regional center. A wide range of support businesses have substantially benefitted from the economic upturn. This trend is now being followed by the entertainment sector, restaurants and hotels.

Aside from these improved facilities, the city has very few traditional tourist attractions However, it has a very nice city plaza which is a small version of Manila's Rizal Park and just as accommodating. As in Luneta, there are late afternoon funny religious debates in the plaza. Another curiosity of this park are the spider fights. As with the cock fights, there is betting, but the amounts match the size of the animals.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Bacolod City / Transportation


In contrast to other cities (Cebu, Iloilo, Manila, Legazpi, Davao etc.) jeepney routes in Bacolod in between the end-points (as indicated on the vehicles sides) are not determined. They are chosen from within a range of two or three parallel streets according to the passengers wishes on a first-ride-firstchoice basis. However, all southbound transport converge on the city plaza, while all northbound lines either lead to the city plaza or to the central market or through the intersection of Locsin/Gonzaga Sts (50m from the market).

The main routes are: (boldface: signboard on the vehicles)

Banago-Sto.Nino-City Plaza-Libertad-City Hall- City Plaza-Banago

Banago-Sto.Nino-City Plaza-City Hall-Singcang- Airport-Tangub & back

Banago-Sto Nino-City Plaza-Araneta St- Singcang-Airport-Pta. Taytay & return

Banago-Sto Nino-City Plaza-Central Market- Libertad-Mansilingan & back

Libertad-Locsin/Gonzaga Sts.-Burgos St.-Burgos

Market -Shopping-Burgos Market-City Plaza- Libertad

Mandalagan-Lacson St City Plaza-Libertad-City Hall-City Plaza-Mandalagan

Mandalagan-Lacson St.-City Plaza-Libertad- Mansilingan & back

Taloc-Central Market-Taloc

Burgos Market-PC Headquarter-Sta Fe Resort >& return

Mansilingan-Libertad-Locsin/Gonzaga Sts.- Burgos St.-Shopping-Burgos St.-City Plaza- Libertad-Mansilingan

Villamonte-Burgos Market-Burgos St.-City Plaza-Libertad & back

City Heights (Subdivision)-Libertad-City Hall- City Plaza-Mandalagan & back

Taculing-Central Market-Burgos Market- Shopping-Burgos Market-City Plaza-Central Market-Taculine

Airport Subdivision-Cor. Gonzaga/Locsin Sts.-Burgos Market-Shopping-Burgos Market-City Plaza-Singcang-Airport Subdivision

Bata (Subdivision)-Mandalagan-Lacson Sts.-City Plaza-Libertad & return

Sum-ag-Singcang-Lacson St.-Burgos Market- Shopping-Burgos Market-City Plaza-City Hall-Singcang-Sum-ag

Mandalagan-Lacson St.-City Plaza-Singcang- Alijis & return

Alijis-Singcang-City Hall-City Plaza-Banago & return

Dona juliana-Central Market-Burgos Market- Shopping & return

PHHC-Central Market and return

Remarks: "Libertad" refers to the South Public Market situated on Hernaez St (formerly Libertad St(. "Shopping" denotes the whole northern city quarter between Burgos Market and Ceres Terminal. On request of passengers jeepneys with signboard "Shopping" make their final stop in front of Ceres Terminal of North Terminal.

Jeepney terminals, stops (city destinations):

Gatuslao/Cuadra Sts (1) - to Banago (Puno Banago or Barrio Banago), Mandalagan Bata

Gatuslao/San Sebastian Sts (4) - to Sum-ag, Punta Taytay-Airport Subdivision, Tangub, Mansilingan

Gatuslao/Rizal Sts (7) - to Banago (Pier)

Gatuslao/Ballesteros Sts (10) - to Rodriguez, Dons Juliana

Gonzaga/Locsin Sts (2) - to PHHC

Gonzaga/Locsin Sts (21) - to Shopping

Locsin St (3) near Halili Inn - to Alijis

Luzuriaga/Locsin Sts (5) - to Taculing, Alijis, Libertad, Don Juliana

Luzuriaga St (6) in front of Cine Ruby - to Mansilingan

Puno Banago (8) - to Tangub (Airport), Pta. Taytay Libertad, Central Market

Hernaez St/Amelia Ave (9) in front of Libertad Market - to City Heights, Taculing

Hernaez St (20) in front of Libertad Market - to Banago, Mandalagan, Shopping

Araneta Ave/Ballesteros St (23) - to Shopping, Mandalagan, Banago

Lacson St/Mandalagan in front of Lopue's - to Libertad Central Market, Shopping Mansilingan

Taxis in Bacolod are often called PU and do not have meters. The minimum charge is 5 pesos for a distance of up to approximately 1.5km (almost one mile). For trips over this short range fares have to be negotiated. Longer trips within the city proper can cost up to 25 pesos for peripheral barangays such as Banago or Alijis). Rates for trips from the airport and the pier are higher:

Airport to: Sugarland/Goldenfield Garden Hotel (500m); downtown (central barangays) northern quarter (Bata, Mandalagan, Sta Clara, Banago)

Car Rentals

Sea Breeze Hotel: ask for Mr. Danilo lubongbanwa, Sea Breeze Hotel, Tel 24571; airconditioned car with driver; the rates have to be negotiated

Sugarland Hotel: several cars can be hired in front of Sugarland Hotel. Contact: Ms. Lime Dumaicos, Sugarland Hotel 22462 to 8 or Mr. Noe Cana, Tel 20050


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Bacolod City / Restaurants

First and Middle Class Restaurants (all air-conditioned, well maintained, clean)

International and Filipino Cuisine

The Caribbean Grill - Sugarland Hotel, Araneta St, Singcang, Tel 22462 to 68 First class restaurant for elegant dining; international cuisine. Under the management of Mr. Franz Weber from Munich. Dinner tip: Hungarian Goulash with a bottle of Bordeaux.

Ang Sinugba Restaurant (30) - Adelfa St corner San Sebastian St, Tel 20547 First class, seafood. Menu with 170 entries (soups, main courses, desserts).

Casa Noble (31)91 Lacson St, Tel 27462, 24096first class

The Basement (32) - Gatuslao St, Tel 83349first class

Cozy Nook Restaurant (33) 15th St, Tel 81880

Bascon Restaurant (14) - Bascon Hotel,Gonzaga St, Tel 23141Recommended for tasty food, friendly service, cozy atmosphere and reasonable prices.

Glass Top Restaurant (34) Rosario St, Tel 29421Filipino cuisine, video-shows.

The Sugar Bowle - Sugarland Hotel, AranetaSt Singcang, Tel 22462 to 68

Flavors (35) - Gatuslao St

Ihaw-Ihaw Restaurant (36)Gatuslao St corner Nueva St, Tel 27011

Roli's Restaurant (37) San Juan St, Tel 25436Roli's Restaurant La Salle Ave, Tel 23028

Street Six Cafe (38) - 6th St, beside DollBuilding, first class

Bob's Big Boy (39) - North Drive, Tel 26541

Bob's Big Boy (40) - La Salle Ave, Tel 22227

Bob's Big Boy (41) - Araneta St, CineplexBuilding, Tel 24576

Barrio Fiesta Restaurant (42) - Araneta St, infront of City Hall, Tel 29522Offers also Chinese cuisine. Satellite programs are shown on wide screen tv s.

Somewhere Else (16)Deja-vu Lodge, Locsin St, Tel 20381

21 Food Corner (43) - Lacson St cor 21st St

Goldah Bites (44) - Burgos St, in front ofBurgos Market; snacks

Tita's Food Center (45) - North Drive corner San Agustin St, Tel 28580

Alice Log Cabin - Goldenfield CommercialComplex, Singcang

Airport Restaurant Airport compound, Taculing

Steak Houses

The Sizzling Inn (46)Doll Building, 6th St, Tel 20335Luxury class restaurant with imported meat.

Old West Steak House - Goldenfield Commercial Complex, Singcang, Tel 23435 First class restaurant

Kristin's Steak House (47) - Lacson St, acrossfrom the Provincial Hospital

El Segundo (17) Las Rocas Hotel, Gatuslao St

Chinese Cuisine

Senyang Restaurant - Goldenfield Commercial Complex, Singcang, Tel 20927 First class

Senyang Restaurant (48) - Araneta St corner Quezon St, Tel 23997; first class

New Holiday Restaurant (49)Hilado St, Tel 25702; Hong Kong style

Yok Pek Dimsum (50) Araneta St corner Gonzaga St, City Plaza

United House Restaurant (51)Hilado St Tel 24815, 24965

Apollo (52) - Plaza Mart Building, Gonzaga St,City Plaza, Tel 22093

The Original Manila Restaurant (53)Narra Ave, Tel 21038

Japanese Cuisine

Inaka Restaurant Capitolville Subdivision, Tel 20846

Inaka Restaurant (54), Lacson St cor 21st StCozy

Nook Restaurant (55)15th St, Tel 81880Goldenfield Garden Hotel - At the time ofthis research, a new Japanese restaurantwas scheduled to open in May 1990.

Italian Cuisine

Carlo - Ristorante Italiano, Goldenfield Commercial Complex, Singcang, Tel 81821

Shakey's Pizza, Goldenfield Commercial Complex, Singcang, Tel 26346

Greenwich Super Pizza (56) Iris Building, Araneta St Specialty: baked macaroni

Ice Cream & Pastries

Bacolod Ice Cream House (57) Aratseta St corner Rosario St

Bacolod Ice Cream House (58) Lacson St corner North Drive

Celyn's Ice Cream House (59) Tindalo St corner Hilado St, Shopping

Cake House (60) - Araneta St


Listed below are exclusively modern, fully air-conditioned facilities

Benjie's (61) - Gonzaga St corner Gatuslao St,City Plaza; US style

Popeye's (62) - Gonzaga St; US stylePopeye's - Goldenfield Commercial Complex, Singcang; US style

Popeye's (63) - North Drive; US style

Bizzi Bear (64)Araneta St corner San Sebastian St With children's playground; US style

Tavie's Simple Food (65) - Araneta St, Cineplex Building, US style

Snack Plaza (66) - Araneta St, across from the port office; US style

Snack Plaza (67) - Gatuslao St cor Cuadra St, City Plaza; US style

Snack Plaza (68) - Gatuslao St, near Gaisano; US style

Egg Snack (69) - Luzuriaga St Good bargain; US style

Gaisano Fastfood (70)Gaisano Shopping Mall, Gatuslao St Good, but quite expensive cakes. Serves also Filipino fast-foods.

Ball's Burger (71) - Araneta St US style; shows on wide screen tv.

Gaisano Food Plaza (72)Luzuriaga St, near City Hall An arcade of several brand new self-servicerestaurants in a cool, modern and clean air-conditioned hall, with video shows on wide-screen tv's. Offers a wide range of US, Filipino and Chinese dishes.


Middle Class Restaurants

(no air-conditioning)

Sea Breeze Restaurant (13)

Sea Breeze Hotel, Tel 24571 upper middle class

Tita's Food Center (73) - Seawall Complex, City Plaza. Reasonable and good.

Reming's (74) - Seawall Complex, City Plaza

Reming's - Lizares Ave, near UNO-R

Limelight - Goldenfield Commercial Complex,Singcang; beer garden, partially open air

Iris Fastfood (75) - Araneta St, Iris Complex Filipino cuisine; good value

Manokan Country (76) - Reclamation Area, near City Plaza.

An open-air compound of numerous food-stalls selling chicken barbecue and oysters.

Kong Kee Restaurant (77) - Bonifacio St

Supermix (78) - Ballesteros St cor Gatuslao St

Staffers Kitchenette (79)Lacson St near corner Rizal St

Rock'n Soda (80) - North Drive, in front of San Agustin College

Chicken Deli (81) - Lacson St corner 15th St

Food Fantasy and Coney Island (82)

Ice cream stand, Plaza Mart Building, San Juan St corner Gonzaga St


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Bacolod City / Entertainment

Bacolod Casino, Goldenfield Commercial Complex, Singcang

Discos and Bars

Zero Degree Disco (83)Araneta Ave corner Quezon St

New Disco 2000 - Goldenfield Commercial Complex, Singcang

Deja-vu Bar (16) - Deja-vu Lodge, Locsin StDisco-bar with singers

Macho Disco (84)Rizal St near corner Lacson St

Spectrum Disco (13)Sea Breeze Building, San Juan St

Los Angeles Disco (85)Lacson St, Phil-Am-Life Building Disco with show; simple

Roofdeck Disco (86) - Luzuriaga St

Peninsula Disco (87)San Jose Building, Lacson St Music lounge with bar; simple

JB Disco House (88) - Rizal St; simple

Blue Bar (89) - 15th St; videos

Space Port (90) - 15th St

Sunrise Disco (91) - San Sebastian St; simple

Intersection Disco (92) Araneta corner Alunan Ave; simple

Magic Disco (93)Rosario St corner Araneta St; simple


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Bacolod City / Movie Theater

Bacolod Cinema (70) Gaisano Shopping Mall Complex, Gatuslao Comfortable, brand new with cool ac.

The Little Cinema - Goldenfield Commercia Complex. Comfortable, good ac.

Cineplex 1 and 2 (94) - Araneta StBrand new and cool.

Rizal Cinema (95) - Luzuriaga StNew and cool.

Crown Cinema (96) - Araneta St New and cool.

Ruby (97) - Luzuriaga StShowing so-called "bold movies

State (98) - Gatuslao St, City Plaza

Iris (99) - Araneta St

Era (100) - Gatuslao St corner Rizal StRather run down and hot.

Real (101) - Araneta St Old and hot; shows Tagalog movies.

Holiday Cinema (102) - Luzuriaga St Run down and unbearably hot; Tagalog movies.

Plaza 1 and 2 (103) - Luzuriaga StRun down and unbearably hot; Tagalogmovies.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Bacolod City / Festivals

Masskara Festival

From the second to the third week in October. A kind of Mardi Gras culminating in a colorful parade.

Charter Day, on October 19In commemoration of the 19th of October, 1938, when Bacolod became a chartered city.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Bacolod City / Attractions

The Provincial Capitol Building (104) This large structure, built in neo-classical style, was completed in 1931. It is said to be the most impressive capitol building in the entire archipelago.

San Sebastian Cathedral (105)Originally a small chapel; initiated in 1848 as a cathedral. Built of coral from Guimaras Island and hard wood fromPalawan, the edifice was finally completed in 1876.

The Palacio Episcopal (106)Dating back to 1830, the "Palacio Episcopal" or Bishop's Palace is older than the Cathedral. During the early years, no ordinary citizen could enter the palacio, and only very few Spanish officials had the opportunity to be guests at the bishop's see.The original hardwood and coral structure was almost entirely destroyed by a fire in January 1985. The reconstruction which took more than two years was completed in 1990.

The Fort San Juan (107)Built in 1848, it was used for military purposes until WW II. At present, the building serves as the Provincial Jail.

House of Negros Showroom (108) At the height of the sugar crises, enterprising residents launched various small and medium-scale cottage industries to augment the province's meager income. Products of these cottage industries are now exhibited in a museum-like building near the Provincial Capitol.

Rizal Elementary School (109)This school was the first to be established in Bacolod City.

The main building, at its present site, was erected during the early period of US colonialism in 1907.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Bacolod City / Shopping

Shopping malls and big department stores are open from 8:30 (Lopue's Araneta) or 9:00 to 20:00, seven days a week. Smaller stores open at 8:00 or 9:00 and close between 18:30and 21:00.


Bacolod City offers a wide range of antiques, even for exacting buyers, ranging from Chinese porcelain to furniture and brass-ware.Some items come from excavations and originate in the 19th century and earlier.

Bacolod Arts Collection (110) - Rizal StPhilippine Arts Antiques - Lopue's Building, Lacson St, Mandalagan Tel 28791 Sar-Le Arts and Antiques Store (111) 19th St corner Lacsons St


Several shops inside the Central Market, entrance Gonzaga St. Recommended is:

Ortiz Native Products (112) Central Market, Stalls 353/354

Household appliances Bargains can sometimes be found in the big shopping malls, such as Lopue's and Gaisano.

P0's Marketing (113)- Araneta St Also reliable repair service

Citi Appliances (114)- Rizal St cor Mabini St

Central Appliances (115) - Rizal St

Public Markets

Central Market (116) Along Gatuslao St and Gonzaga St Handicrafts and food (esp. fruits)

Burgos Market (117) - (officially: North Hilado Market), along Burgos St and Hidalgo St. Libertad Market (118) - (officially: South Public Market), Hernaez St

Villamonte Public Market - VillamonteNegros

Occidental Food Terminal Market (119)Also called Pala-Pala Market, along San Juan St. Wholesale market, open from 19:00 to 6:00. Biggest fish market in theprovince. Daytime retail market for fish, meat and vegetables (closed during siesta hours).

North Terminal Public Market (120)Lopez Jaena St; meat and fish

Department Stores and Supermarkets

Only well-maintained, air-conditioned establishments are listed.

Gaisano (70) - Gatuslao St cot Ballesteros St

Shopping Mall

Lopue's (121)Araneta St cot San Sebastian St Shopping Mall

Lopu's (122) Araneta St Department Store

Lopu's Lacson St, Mandalagan Shopping Mall

Servandos (123) 67 Araneta St corner Hernaez St Department Store

China Rose (124) Gonzaga St, City Plaza Department Store.

Consuelo Supermarket (125) - Luzuriaga St Department Store with groceries; neat, cool and clean


Uno—R Hook Store (126) — University of Negros Occidental, 51 Lizares Ave Tel 26888

Our Book Exchange Club (127) Araneta St corner Rosario St Membership 40 pesos can be Rented for a few pesos.

Kodak Express (128) Araneta St; 1 hr film developing

M & D Ceramics (129) - Rosario St, in front of Rizal Elementary School


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Bacolod City / Offices


General Post Office (130) - Gatuslao St, Across from provincial jail (new bldg)

Other post offices:

Ballesteros St (131)

West Negros College (132) - Burgos St

A-5O Tindalo Ave (133) Shopping near North terminal

Villamonte- Barangay Hall

Sum-Ag- Stadium

PLDT (134) Galo St, near Lacson St Modern,air-conditioned and comfortable facilities frientdlv, helpful staff. Long distance (especially international)calls here

Bureau of Telecommunications (131) 2nd floor, Post Office Bilding Ballesteros

JRS Express (135) Philam life Building, Lacson St

Telecash Express (136) Ocana Building, Luzuriaga St

PT&T (137) Gonzaga St City Plaza lso telefax

RCPI (138) Gozaga St City Plaza

RCPI (139) Galo St corner Gatuslao St

Travel Agencies

Rajah Tours (13) Sea Breeze Hotel, San juan St, Tel 28918

Classic Travel louse (140) - 6th St, Tel 20044

Delmar Travel Agency (141) - San juan St Corner San Sebastian St, Tel 29037


Foreign currency can be changed at the banks. All larger banks exchange US dollars in cash fur what is called the "official rate" dictated by the Central Bank. Only the PNB, Lacson St Branch, exchanges travellers checks, though for a lower rate than cash and involving an incredibly painstaking bureaucratic procedure.

Other currencies than US dollars are only exchanged in the PNB, Lacson St Branch. The transaction is extremely complicated and Time-consuming.

There is a free market for currency exchange around Ballesteros St corner Araneta St and at the entry of the General Post Office. For US dollars, most dealers offer a rate which is only 20 to 25 centavos lower than the rates at the most advantageous free markets in the Philippines, in Ermita and binondo /Sia.Cruz. Swiss Francs, German Marks and japanese Yen are also accepted, at the same rate given by the PNB. Traveller's checks are not honored.

Central Bank (142) Lacson St, Milagros Court, Tel 28091

Philippine National Bank (143) Lacson St cor North Capitol Rd, Tel 25109 Head Branch

Philippine National Bank (144) Araneta St corner Luzuriaga St

24-hours Express Teller (145) Bank of the Phil. Islands, Araneta St

Police Stations

Metro Police District Headquarters Magsaysay Ave, Taculing, Tel 119

Precinct I (146) - San juan St, 2nd flour Reming Building, Tel 22503

Precinct II (147) 19th St corner Lacson St, Tel 28885

Precinct III - Lopue's Building, Lacson St, Mandalagan, Tel 23758

Precinct IV - La Salle Ave, Tel 21184

Precinct VI - Taculing Rd, Tel 20030

Precinct VIII - Tangub, Tel 22312

Precinct IX - Sum-ag, Tel 25853

Phil. Constabulary - Provincial Headtquarters, Camingawan, Tel 28828


Philippine Information Agency (148) Milagros bldg, Gatuslao St, Tel 28754 Information for tourists, businessmen and journalists; friendly and helpful staff.

Commission of Immigration and Deportation (CID) (149) - Alien Control Officer, Milagros Bldg, Gatuslao St, Tel 22904

Philippine News Agency - Negros Media Center, San juan St, Tel 25383

City Hall (150) Luzuriaga St corner Araneta St


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Bacolod City / Sports

Swimming Pools

Negros 0cc. Golf & Country Club - Bata Subdivision, Tel 21086;

Sugarland Hotel - Singcang, Tel 22462 to 68

Sta Fe Resort - Burgos St Ext; two swpls, children's playground, restaurant; jeepney from Burgos Mkt, direction Granada

Goldenfield Garden Hotel - Goldenfield Commercial Complex, 2 swpls, new

Bacolod Pavilion Resort (12) - Reclamation Area; only for club members and guests

Tennis Courts

Negros 0cc. Tennis Association (NOTA) (151) Gatuslao St

Las Palmas Tennis Club - Bata Subdivision, off Lacson St, to be reached through a small road across from Lopue's, Mandalagan

Negros 0cc. Golf & Country Club Bata Subdivision, Tel 21086

Basketball Courts

Seawall Complex (152) behind Reming's, San Juan St

YMCA Complex (25) Burgos St, beside YMCA Lodge

Golf Courses

Negros 0cc. Golf & Country Club Bata Subdivision, Tel 21086 200 day/person; equip. 200 (non-member)

Bowling Alleys

Players (95) - Rizal Cine Bldg, Luzuriaga St

Super Bowling Lanes - Goldenfield Commercial Complex, Singcang


Pagla-um Sports Complex (153) Hernaez St; athletics, soccer

Uchi Geri Karate Club (154) Burgos St, behind YMCA Complex

Sweat Shop (155) - Gatuslao St; gym

Chess Center (156) City Plaza, across from Reming's


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Bacolod City / Culture & Education

Public Libraries

City Library, (157) - Seawall Complex, basement of Reming’s Building

Provincial Library (104) 3rd floor, Provincial Capitol

Library of the National Statistics Office (158) 3rd floor, Villasor Bldg, Luzuriaga St corner San Juan St; useful for research, studies.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Bacolod City / Art

Art Association of Bacolod (159) Pavilion, Seawall Complex, City Plaza In this exhibition hall, local artists regularly display their paintings and sculptures. Information about cultural activitie Bacolod.

Universities and Colleges

De La Salle University (160) - la Salle Ave

University of Negros Occidental (161) (UNO-R), Lizares Ave

Colegio de San Agustin (162) - North Drive

West Negros College (163) - Burgos St

La Consolacion College (164) - City Plaza


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Bacolod City / Health

Bacolod Sanitarium and Hospital "Taculing, Tel 26631, 26632

Dr. Pablo Torre Memorial Hospital (165) North Drive, Tel 27031

The Doctor' Hospital (166) North Drive, Tel 21811

Our Lady of Mercy Hospital Mandalagan, Tel 81270

Montelibano Memorial Hospital (167) Lacson St corner Burgos St, Tel 26305


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Bacolod City / Travel From And To Bacolod


The airport is located in a southern suburb of Bacolod City, about 4km from the town center. One can easily go by jeepney (Direction "Tangub" or "Punta Taytay", not "Airport Subdivision") . It is advisable to board the jeepney at the terminal station at the corner of Gatuslao St and San Sebastian St.

Philippine Airlines has flights to Iloilo and vice versa, just across Guimaras Strait three times a day, one in the morning, one around noon and one in the afternoon. The flight takes just 15 minutes. There are also flights to San Carlos, on Negros, and to Manila and Cebu. Many other southern Philippine destinations can conveniently be reached via Cebu.

Philippine Airlines

Airport, Tel 27379, 24929, 25579, 25085

Aircraft Charter

Gumayan Air Charter Service - Airport Compound, Singcang, Tel 21981

Planes with a capacity of 3 passengers (Cherokee and Tri-Pacer).

Pacific Airways

Airport Compound, Singcang, Tel 23644. Apart from some scheduled flights this firm offers 3 and 5-seater planes for charter.

RG Air Charter

Airport Compound, Singcang, Tel 23570 The customer is given the choice between a 5 and a 3-seater (Cherokee) for any domestic destination.


Due to the shallowness along the shore of Bacolod, the city does not have a harbor for passenger ships or bigger cargo vessels. These ships have to use a private pier as landing place. The facility has been set up some 4km north of the city center and is named Banago Wharf, after the quarter, where it is located(Barangay Banago). One gets there by taxi (15 pesos from downtown) or by Jeepney with signboard "Banago" from Rizal St corner Gatuslao St, from the Central Market or Libertad Market.

All passenger ships from and to Bacolod belong to a single company: Negros Navigation (NN). Tickets are sold in the following offices:

Negros Navigation Office (168) Doll Building, 6th St, Tel 29300

Pier Ticket Office Barangay Banago, Tel 28952

Jeepney and Bus Terminals

North Bus and jeepney Terminal (169) Lopez Jaena St. One can get to by jeepneys with signboard Shopping". The driver has to be 50 instructed, because the jeepneys do not always follow the same route (see "jeepneys"). Destinations: Silay, Talisay, Victorias, Cadiz, Balintawak, Buenavista, and other northern places.

Burgos Market (170) - Hilado St near corner Burgos St. Destinations: Sta. Fe, Granada, Alangilan

Hernaez St corner Adelfa St (171) Near Libertad Market. Destination: La Carlota.

Hernaez St corner Mabini St (172) Across from Libertad Market. Destination: Ma-ao

Mabini St (173) - across from Libertad Market Destinations: Valladolid, Pulupandan, San Enrique, Hinigaran, Mamsucal and other southbound lines.

Hernaez St corner Amelia St (174) Across from Libertad Market Destination: Murcia

Northern Bus Terminal (169) - Lopez Jaena St Destinations: Northbound buses to Sagay, Victorias, Silay, Escalante, Cadiz, San Carlos. The new terminal has been erected recently for all non-Ceres buses. It is located about 500m away from its old position in direction Burgos Market and can be attained by jeepneys displaying the signboard "Shopping".

Ceres North Terminal (175) Lopez Jaena St corner North Drive Only for northbound Ceres buses. Destinations: Silay, Victorias, Escalante, Cadiz, Sagay, San Carlos, Dumaguete, Cebu (direct buses every morning).

Southern Bus Terminal (176) Hernaez St, near Libertad Market Destinations: Southbound buses: Bago City, Kabankalan, Hinigaran, Isabela, La Castellana, Kanlaon City, San Carlos City (via Kaniaon). The terminal can be gotten to by jeepney, signboard "Libertad".


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Bacolod City / Attractions Around Bacolod

Jara Beach Resort - Airport Rd, Bacolod, 30min from downtown; luxury resort cot 300/400 (fan/ac); rest, convention facilities, tide-pools, .beach area

Punta-Taytay Beach Resorts at Alcade, 12km (7mi) south of Bacolod, jeepneys from South Public Market

Mambucal Falls - Mambucal, 30km (l9mi) southeast of Bacolod, jeepneys from Libertad St (1 hr); recreation area with several waterfalls, swimming pools, hot and cold springs; accommodation available at Mambucal Tourist Lodge and at Pagoda Lodge

Canlaon Volcano and National Park - can be reached from Mambucal; Canlaon Volcano stands 2,438m (7,999ft)

Victorias - An interesting day trip out of Bacolod City is to the town of Victorias, 34km (2lmi) to the north. It can be easily reached by jeepneys; the trip takes about 1.5 hours. The Victorias Sugar Milling Company is located there which is reputed to be the largest mill of its kind in the world. The company owns an extensive network of private rail lines which is used to ship the sugar cane from the plantations to the milling center. Free public tours are conducted through the mills. For information, visitors should contact the company's tourist office inside the complex. Aside from that it is worth to see the Osorio and Rosales Chapel.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / San Carlos City

From here a ferry goes twice a day to Toledo City on Cebu island.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Kabankalan

This town, 80km (5Omi) south of Bacolod, is noted for the Sinolog Festival on the third weekend in January which is similar to the Sinolog Festival in Cebu City. However, there has been some political turmoil in Kabankalan for the last few years.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Dumaguete City

Dumaguete has its strange, somehow unPhilippine features. First of all, Catholicism is not the predominant denomination there but Protestantism. Furthermore, as the city has a very large Protestant university, Siliman University (3), it gives the impression of all in all just being a campus.

Many of the teachers at Siliman University are religious Americans. The city therefore got its share in Protestant moral rigidity.

Dumaguete has a very nice coastal boulevard, Rizal Ave, commonly also just called Boulevard. It is a shame it has not been better developed with some commercial infrastructure, and it would be nice for evening strolls if it would be a little bit better lighted.


Phil Nat'l Bank (10) - Siliman Ave

Provincial Hospital (1)

Museum (8) - Administrat. Bldg, Siliman Ave

City Hall (18) - Colon St

Public Market (16) - Real cor Colon Sts


Northern Bus Terminal (4) - Looc Rd near pier 1; buses to Bacolod via San Carlos (northern route)

Southern Bus Terminal (20) - Real cor Sta Rosa St; buses to Bacolod via Hinobaan (southern route), mostly in the morning

Jeepney & Minibus Terminals

(14) - Locsin St; to San Jose and Tampi

(19) - Real cor Colon Sts; to Valencia

Shipping Lines

William, George & Peter (6) - near pier

Gothong (12) - San Juan cor Rizal Ave


Camp Lookout - near Valencia; jeepney from corner Real and Colon Sts, Dumaguete to Valencia, then tricycle to Bongbong and the rest by foot. View from the radio station area over Dumaguete and the islands Cebu, Sumilon, and Siquijor.

Palentinong Hot Springs - at Valencia

Siliman Beach - Bantayan, north of Dumaguete Acc: South Sea Beach Hotel ac-cot 180-258; rest North Pole Resort Hotel, Tel 35-35

Cangmating Beach - Sibulan, north of Dumaguete; rms 80-180

El Oriente Beach Resort - Mangnao cot 90-195

Sta Monica Beach Resort - Banilad, Tel 34-41 rms P 160-320

Apo Island - can be reached from Zamboanguita by motor banca; good site for snorkeling and scuba diving Acc: Excelsior Lodge, Tel 991; rm 20-40


Philippines / Western Visayas / Negros / Transportation

Land Transportation

Bacolod - San Carlos - Dumaguete (7 hrs) frequent Ceres Liner buses

Bacolod - Canlaon City (4 hrs) several Ceres Liner buses daily

San Carlos - Canlaon - frequent jeepneys

Canlaon - Dumaguete (4 hrs) several Ceres Liner buses daily

Dumaguete - Hinobaan - Bacolod (11 hrs) buses in the morning

Shipping Schedule

Destination Isl/Port /From/Company/Departure time-day

Travel time/via/vessel

Bohol Tagbilaran / Dumaguete / William /14:00-Sat ! 3 hrs ! MV Ozamis

Cebu Cebu City Bacolod Negr.Nav /1 trip weekly ! 12 hrs

Cebu City Dumaguete Georg&P. /1 trip daily ! 8 hrs

Cebu City Dumaguete K & T /2 trips weekly !8 hrs! Samar Queen

Tuburan Escalante /2 trips daily ! 2hrs !car!passenger ferry

Toledo San Carlos / 2trips daily! 2hrs

Talisay Tampi /several trips daily !hr

Luzon Manila Bacolod Negr.Nav /16:00-mon!24 hrs !MV Don Claudio

Manila Bacolod Negr.Nav /16:-wed,13:Sat!24 hrs!MV Don julio

Manila Bacolod Negr.Nav /16:00-Fri! 24 hrs!MV STA Maria

Mindanao Dipolog Dumaguete /1 trip daily!4 hrs

Panay Iloilo Bacolod Negr.Nav /7:00,15:00 daily !2hrs

Slquijor Larena Dumaguete /1 trip daily !3hrs

Flight from Negros

from-to / Days / Dep / Arr / Fare

Bacolod-Manila /daily / 9:20 /10:20 /654

/daily /13:50 /14:50 /654

/ Su /15:25 /16:25 /654

/Th,Fr /16:50 /17:50 /654

/Sa /19:10 /20:10 /654

Baeolod-Cebu /daily /7:20 /7:50 /237

/daily /18:10 /19:00 /210

Dumaguete-Manila /daily /14:35 /16:45 /847

Dumaguete-Cebu /daily /7:45 /8:25 /238


Philippines / Western Visayas / Panay / The Island

Panay is one of the economically better developed islands of the archipelago. This was mainly brought about by the political events at the middle of the nineteenth century when the British forced Spain to open the Philippines to the world market. Thereafter, the Scotch capitalist Nicolas Loney brought modern agribusiness to Panay and Negros with the installation of sugar plantations. But Panay more than Negros ever before had a well organized but not very modern home industry. Even today, Panay known for its good quality crafts of weaving and pottery.

The sugar growing areas of Panay are concentrated around Iloilo City. As the terrain is flat through wide parts of Panay, many areas are devoted to growing rice, too. The poorest parts of the island are, as always in the Philippines, the mountainous areas which in the case of Panay are not in the center of the island but along the west coast.

Some small islets off the north coast are world famous for beautiful beaches. Best known is Boracay which developed into the most favored destination among the European youth visiting The Country .

Kalibo, the city near Boracay, has been the entry point of an earlier foreign invasion. It was there, in 1213 a big group of Bornean Malaya landed to settle and stay. Panay, at that time, was widely populated by Negritos. The Bornean Malays who were superior to the Negritos, however, chose not to take the island by force but rather to buy it from the native inhabitants. An according contract was made between Datu (chieftain) Puti of the Borneans and the Negritos' chief Marikudo.

As a concession to the Negritos who probably were fleeced in the deal, the new Malay settlers in subsequent fiestas blackened their skin with coal to look more like the Negritos, or Ati, as they name themselves and are called in the vernacular. The tradition of fiestas with blackening of the skin to look like the Ati is still very much alive today; examples are the Ati-Atihan festivals in Kalibo and throughout The Country .

Even in the early Malay times, Panay was divided into three administrative areas: the southern plain (Irongiron, later Iloilo), the western mountain range (Hamtik, later Antique, a name chosen by the Spanish obviously for its similar sound to the native's name), and the northern hills (Capiz).

Even in pre-Spanish history, Panay was advanced in civilization in comparison to most Philippine islands. An example therefore was the rule of Datu Kalantiao over Capiz in the 15th century. In about 1433, he authored a set of written laws for his kingdom, the so-called Code of Kalantiao.

The Spanish arrived on Panay in 1569. Miguel de Legazpi partially colonized the island and installed General Gonzalo Ronquilloas as first Spanish governor of Panay. For a few years, the town of Arevalo was the seat of the provincial Spanish government, but in 1581, it was transferred to Iloilo.

Nowadays, the NPA is present throughout the island, but it is stronger in the mountains along the west coast than in the plains. There was a number of raids on town halls and constabulary detachments in recent years, but generally, the rebels of Panay are said to have a softer approach than those on Negros or Mindanao. They put more emphasis on education campaigns and building of mass base organizations than on military actions. However, provoked by some NPA assaults, mainly Capiz province became more militarized in recent years. The most spectacular operation of the NPA on Panay was the blasting of several bridges in the outskirts of Iloilo in January, 1987.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Panay / Geography

Land Area: 12,297sqkm (4,748sqmi)

Topography: the east side is lowland, with some upland portions; the west side is rugged and mountainous

Mountains: Mt Usigan near Malinao, Aklan l,066m (3,498ft); Mt Nangtud near Dumalag, Capiz 2,049m (6,723ft); Mt Baloy near Bugasong, Antique 1,728m (5,670ft); Mt Agudo near Batad, Iloilo 834m (2,736ft)

Rivers: Sibalom river in Antique; Panay river in Capiz; Iloilo river in Iloilo


Philippines / Western Visayas / Panay / Population

Majority Group: Ilongos; Language HilongoMinorities: Atis (Negritos)Island Population: 2,601,000Cities, Towns: (Census of 1980; x1000)


Kalibo 40 N.Washingt. 26 Batan 23

Ibajay 31 Banga 25 Libacao 22

AntiqueSibalom 36 Hamtic 29 Patnongan 24San Jose 30 Culasi 30 Tob.Fornier 23


Roxas City 81 Mambusao 32 Pontevedra 30

Tapaz 35 Panay 32 Pilar 30


Philippines / Western Visayas / Panay / Political Structure

Pop. Area Capital

X1000 sgkm sqkmi

Aklan 325 1,818 702 Kalibo

Antique 345 2,522 974 Sn.Jose d.B.

Capiz 492 2,633 1,017 Roxas City

Iloilo 1,434 5,324 2,056 Iloilo


Philippines / Western Visayas / Panay / Iloilo City / The City

Iloilo is a comparatively clean and even neat city with far fewer social problems than for example Bacolod just across Guimaras Strait. Unlike Bacobod, there are almost no beggars in the streets.

From an architectural viewpoint, Iloilo has much more to offer than most Philippine cities. Molo church in the Molo district is impressing, and many of the buildings in the downtown have decorative facades.

Iloilo has a very fine natural harbor which is, however, no longer of importance. The harbor actually is right in the city center, and it 's an interesting site for a daytime stroll. In between the warehouses, the harbor quarter also has its clubs which come alive at night.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Panay / Iloilo City / Restaurant

Sarabia Manor Hotel Rest. (62) Gen Luna St (int'l) ac, first class rest

Fatima Garden (50) - Delgado St (Phil) ac

Kamalig (50) - Delgado St (Phil) partly ac, partly garden rest

The Tavern (52) - Delgado St (Phil) ac, upper middle class


Philippines / Western Visayas / Panay / Iloilo City / Attractions

Museo de Iloilo (38) - Bonifacio Dr archaeological and folkloric items

Plaza Libertad (9) & San Jose Church (8) Basa St

Fort San Pedro Area & Rotary Park (2) near the pier

Molo Church - Molo plaza in Molo district. jeepneys from Iznart cor Gen Luna Sts signed 'Molo'

Jaro Cathedral - in jaro district Seat of the archbishop


Philippines / Western Visayas / Panay / Iloilo City / Shopping

Department of Tourism (63) - Sarabia Bldg Gen Luna St, Tel 787-01, 754-11 Mon-Sat 8:00-17:00

Phil Nat'l Bank

(42) - Gen Luna St; (11) - Basa St

City Hall (12) - Ortiz St

Provincial Capitol (36) - Gen Luna St

St. Paul's Hospital (54) - Gen Luna St

Iloilo Doctors' Hospital (64) Lopez Jaena St, Molo

Central Market (22) - Aldeguer St

Supermarket (59) - De Leon St public market


Philippines / Western Visayas / Panay / Iloilo City / Transportation

Department of Tourism (63) - Sarabia Bldg Gen Luna St, Tel 787-01, 754-11 Mon-Sat 8:00-17:00

Phil Nat'l Bank

(42) - Gen Luna St; (11) - Basa St

City Hall (12) - Ortiz St

Provincial Capitol (36) - Gen Luna St

St. Paul's Hospital (54) - Gen Luna St

Iloilo Doctors' Hospital (64) Lopez Jaena St, Molo

Land Transportation

PAL Office (40) Gen Luna St cor Bonifacio Dr Tel 735-11, 759-25, 784-71

Bus Terminal (58) - Rizal St Ceres Liner buses hourly to Roxas and Kalibo via Dumalag in the morning Jeepney Terminals

(48) - lznart cor Rizal Sts; to Molo, Calumpang, Villa Beach, Maasin, Potoan

(58) - Rizal St; to Lambunao

(59) - around 'Supermarket'; to Guimbal, Miag-ao, San Joaquin, Tubungan, Igbaras, Tigbauan, Cabatuan

(60) - Jalandoni St; to Sta Barbara, also minibus to Passi


Ticket offices of Trans Asia, Sulpicio and Negros Navigation are at the main pier (3) Piers

(1) - at the Iloilo river mouth; frequent outriggers to Buenavista on Guimaras

(3) - main pier, Fort San Pedro Dr ships to Mindanao and Manila

(4) - at the Fort San Pedro Drive Inn hourly boats to Jordan on Guimaras Isl

(6) - Muelle Loney; ferry to Bacolod twice a day. 7:00 and 15:00


Philippines / Western Visayas / Panay / Iloilo City / Around Iloilo City

The coast southwest of Iloilo until Miagao has many nice beaches in between fishing villages. The beaches have fine light gray sand and shallow clear water and are relatively clean. Almost all beaches have picnic huts and tables for rent and are suitable for a day trip from Iloilo City. They can be easily reached by jeepneys from Iloilo.

Aside from the beaches, interesting points are the yellow stone church in Tigbaoan, the pirate watchtowers at Guimbal, and the Nadsadan Falls at Igbaras, near Guimbal.


Villa Rosa by the Sea - Calaparan, Villa Tel 769-53; cot 150 (tb), 270 (ac,tb) md. breakfast; seafood rest, swpl

Punta Villa Beach Houses - Arevalo, 6km (3.5mi) from Iloibo, Tel 772-53; cot 140 pp. meals included; rest, basket ball, volley ball, tennis court; hard to find because the sign is old

Coco Grove Beach Houses - Tigbaoan, 15km (9mi) west of Iloilo; cot 150-200

Garzon Beach Houses - Guimbal, 22km (l4mi) west of Iloilo, Tel 717-21; cot 65-80


Philippines / Western Visayas / Panay / Guimaras Island

The best beaches and resorts around Iloilo are on Guimaras island, between Panay and Negros. Accommodation in native cottages is available at Isla Naburot, near Nueva Valencia on the west coast, and at Isla Nagarao near San Isidro on the east coast. Regular ferries from Iloilo go to Jordan and Buenavista; outriggers to the above mentioned resorts can be hired at the Fort San Pedro Drive Inn in Iloilo.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Panay / Gigantes Island

A group of islets off the Northeast tip of Panay. Two are inhabited, Gigantes North and Gigantes South Island. Gigantes North, 5 by 3km (about 3 by 2m) in size, is not only the most beautiful of the group but also one of the most beautiful islets in all of the Philippines. lt's own White Beach though not as long as White Beach on Boracay does not have to fear comparison with its more famous counterpart. A stretch of approximately 1km (0.6m), has a fine, purely white sand. The beach, on the South of the islet, is located in a small cove with high rocks at both ends. Behind the beach is a coconut jungle. The center of the islet is mountainous with two enormously large caves, each penetrating into the mountains for about one kilometer. As they are quite safe they are suited even for freshmen spelunkers.

The islet doesn't have much infrastructure yet but accommodation is available at some cottages built there by a German and his wife. The place doesn’t have a name yet but cottages can be rented for 80 to 150 pesos. The couple also provides food.

To get to the Gigantes Islands one first proceeds to Iloilo, Roxas or Estancia (the closest). To all three, there are ships from Manila. Going by air, one has a choice between Roxas and Iloilo. From Iloilo, it takes 4, from Roxas 2 hours to get to Carles, a small town opposite the Gigantes Islands, where one can hire a banca to cross over. A fair price for the whole banca which can carry 6 to 8 passengers is 500 pesos.

Gigantes North at this time is about what Boracay was some 10 years ago. With Boracay becoming developed for the upper market tourist, several pioneering backpackers have chosen Gigantes North as an alternative.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Panay / Sicogon Island

A beautiful small island off the Northeast tip of Panay with nice white sand beaches. Boats go from Estancia to Sicogon. On Sicogon, there is no accommodation available other than at the expensive resort which occupies 1,200 hectare of the island's area.

Sicogon Island Resort

luxury beach resort; cot $ 42-50 rest, bar, swpl, tennis court, pelota, horseback riding, wind surfing, snorkeling

Mla Off: Chemphil Bldg, 851 Pasay RdMakati, Tel 817-11-60, 817-1163

Tlx 66319 SCGON PN


Philippines / Western Visayas / Panay / Roxas City

The city was named after President Roxas who was born there; the former name was Capiz. Among the locals, 'Capiz' is still more widely used than 'Roxas'.


Phil Nat'i Bank (15) - Rizal St

City Hall & Police Station (11) - Rizal St Post Office (3) - Rizal St

PLTD (16) - McKinley St

LBC (9) - Arnaldo St

RCPI (6) - Arnaldo StRoxas Memorial Hospital (8) - Arnaldo St

St Antony Hospital (20) - Fuente Dr

Birth Place of Pres. Roxas (2) - Rizal St


PAL Office (17) - McKinley St

Bus Terminal (13) - Ceres Liner buses toIloilo hourly btw 3:00 and 14:00

Jeepneys and Minibuses (18) - public market several minibuses to Kalibo in the morning; jeepneys to all directions

Shipping Lines

Gothong (7) - Arnaldo St

Aboitiz (1) - Rizal St


Marc's Beach Resort - Baybay Beach, 4km (2.5mi) west of Roxas, Tel 491 rm 95-155; rest, pelota, tennis, volleyball,disco

Villa Patria - Baybay, Roxas City, Tel 180 cot 135-265 (ac); Japanese rest

Panorama Island Resort - Barra Hills, Roxas,Tel 417; rm 90; conf rm, rest

Suhot Springs - at Dumalag; cave with spa, good site for swimming and picnic; jeepneys from the market in Roxas.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Panay / Kalibo

Most visitors to Kalibo come either for the famous Ati-Atihan Festival in the third week of January or they stay only for one night and proceed to Boracay the next day.

The Ati-Atihan Festival is a week long bash in the same manner the Bornean Malays and Negritos celebrated several hundred years ago. But today, this folk festival is given religious meaning and celebrated in honor of the town's patron saint, Sto Nino. During the celebration, one can see revelers in different colorful costumes, with black and white paint on their bodies and bizarre make up on their faces, singing, shouting, dancing to the drumbeat.

Among the Ati-Atihan groups, many from other parts of The Country , there is a competition for the best costumes and the wildest performance.

This frenzied, unorganized merriment draws huge crowds, among them many foreign tourists. Before, during and after the festival, all means of transportation going to Kalibo as well as hotels and lodging houses in the town are fully booked. It is therefore advisable if one intends to join the festival to have transport and accommodation reservations made one month before the festival. Because of the sudden influx of thousands of visitors in the town, prices for hotels and any kind of accommodation are multiplied by many times, if compared to the off-season.

Restaurants, Entertainment

The restaurants in Kalibo cater mainly to the locals and do not really specialize in foreign foods. Meals are a good bargain in simple restaurants, such as Gervy's Gourmet (14) on Pastrana St or Peking House (16) on Martyrs St. Additional food stalls surround the market place.

A local speciality is Batchoy, a noodle soup with meat, liver etc.

For entertainment in the night one maygo to Father Mustache (21) (video disco) or Electra Disco (20) on Rizal St or Flash Disco (7) (quite basic) at the corner of Veterans Ave and Burgos St. Great Minds (17) is a sing along place with cozy living room atmosphere and air-con. The Bowling Inn (26) is on Lasdrna St. Cinemas can be found on Martyrs St near the Plaza, and on Pastrana St.

The Aklan Museum (9) on Martelino St was temporarily closed in January 89.


Police Headquarters (18) - Martyrs St opp. Plaza

Post Office - Roxas Ave near the wet market

Phil. Nat. Bank (2) - Reyes / Pastrana Sts

PT&T (11) - Martelino St; long distance calls

LBC (3) - Roxas Ave / Ramos St

Memorial Hospital (25) - Mabini St

St.Gabriel Hospital (13) - Pastrana St

St.jude's Hospital (22) F.Quimpo / Laserna Sts


Philippines / Western Visayas / Panay / Transportation

For short distances tricycles function as taxis, cost 1 peso per passenger within the town. Fares are 10 pesos for up to two pas- sengers from the town center to the airport.

Jeepneys and buses to Caticlan and Malay (1) wait at Roxas Ave near the market. Jeepneys to Dumaguit/New Washington (4) are in Gonzales and Torong Sts. The Ceres

Liner Terminal (29) (to Iloilo) is at the corner of Mabini and Ma-agma Sts. Buses to Roxas wait on the road to the airport near Mabini St. Before leaving town they usually make a stop at the Ceres Liner Terminal.

PAL Office - at the airport, Tel 24-09

William Lines (5) - 165 Roxas Ave,Tel 33-69

Aboitiz Shipping. Co. (15) - C.Laserna St Tel 31-91

Gothong Lines - do St.Peter Agency Gonzales St; Tel 33-37


Philippines / Western Visayas / Boracay / The Island

Located just north of the northern tip of Panay and endowed by nature with one of the world's finest and loveliest palm-fringed white sand beaches, Boracay has attracted thousands of foreign and local tourists and has become one of the most favored destinations in the Philippines. The busiest season for the island is December to March.

The island is roughly the shape of a dumb-bell, 7km (4.4mi) long and 1km (0.6mi) at its widest point. There are approximately 3,500 inhabitants. Boracay is part of the administrative district of Malay, Aklan province, and consists of three barangays: Yapak in the north, Balabag in the center, and Manoc-Manoc in the south. The north and the south are hilly with elevations up to 100m (300ft) above sea level.

Neither electricity nor public transport is readily available, which contributes greatly to the natural charm of the island. Some of the resorts, however, are equipped with electric generators.

Allegedly an electric power line from the mainland will soon be installed, which would make the islanders independent of car batteries, petroleum lamps and gas refrigerators.

The main beach on Boracay is White Beach, 3.5km (2.2mi) long, and therefore also called ‘Long Beach' by the locals. It is situated on the west coast between the villages of Angol and Balabag. There are' about 100 beach resorts of all types and price categories; restaurants range from native fast-food stalls to establishments that satisfy even gourmets; there are beer joints as well as discos with amazing light and sound equipment.

Further to the north a trail over a hill leads to the dreamy little village Diniwid with its 200m (600ft) long beach. Near the beach there are for rent simple cottages as well as bamboo houses, some of them with fully equipped kitchens.

Continuing on a steep path over the next hill, one comes upon the tiny Balinghai Beach, which - enclosed by' steep rocky walls - offers a Remote hideaway for the solitary minded and the adventurer. Here, too, are several simple cottages for rent, most of them scattered over the hills.

On the north coast, facing Carabao Island, is Puka Shell Beach, a white sand stretch about 800m (0.5mi) long. This beach was made famous by the shiny white Puka shells which some years ago were dug from the sand and made into jewelry. This reduced the number of shells to such a degree that it was necessary to prohibit their export. Most visitors only make a stop-over here during a boat trip around the island. So few stay longer that Puka Shell Resort' was actually closed in January 89. Since winds create high waves almost every day it is sometimes risky to go by the north coast in the simple bangka. An experienced hiker can get to this solitary spot near Yapak village in about 2 hours from Balabag. On the rocky coast, near Yapak, there are caves inhabited by giant bats.

Turning eastwards at the junction before Yapak and after a 20 minutes' hike one gets to the village Ilig-Iligan. It has gained a reputation for its 'Kar-Tir Sea Shell Museum' located to the right of the road's end on. A hill towering above the ocean. It boasts a collection of nice sea shells, wall decorations, handicrafts including wood carvings, pottery and hand-woven articles, as well as traditionnal costumes from all over the Philippines (entrance fee-10 pesos).

Apart from that the east coast has almost no tourist infrastructure in spite of available sand beaches. But the water is shallow and not good for swimming, especially at low tide. Stones and seaweed often obstruct access to deeper water. Professional windsurfers practice here at Bulabog and even have championship competitions.

In January 1989 a large number of visitors to Boracay decided to file a petition at the Department of Tourism. Major points include the reduction of noise as produced by motorbikes, discos and loud boat horns. It was suggested that during the high season (Dec. 15 until Apr. 15) all construction noise be banned. Many people feel that more should be done to protect flora and fauna, especially the coral reef. It was also lamented that there is still no official money changer on Boracay.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Boracay / Restaurants

Aside from numerous small snack bars and fast-food establishments there is a whole line of excellent restaurants with international dishes and ambience.

Chez Deparis (19) - Balabag; French and Asian cuisine; pizza, pastries and wines;high class rest

Bamboo Rest. (22) - Mangayad; Swiss rest,speciality Roesti (Swiss fried potatoes withbacon and egg; in Switzerland common asbreakfast

Red Coconut Rest. & Bar (18) - Balabag;European and Chinese cuisine, spec. Paella; beautiful garden

Jony's Place (13) Balabag; Mexican food; famous for its fruit shakes

Fischfang Rest. (26) - Angol German & Swiss food Sundown Rest. (26) - Angol ;Swiss & German rest and cocktail bar

Floremar Rest. Da Mario (26) - Angol Italian specialty restaurant

Pizza da Baffo (24) - Angol Ristorante Italiano

Mezzanine Rest. & Billiard (18) - Balabag

Aqua Blue Rest. (18) - Balabag

Seralen Rest. (23) - Mangayad

New Seralen Rest (24) - Angol

Star Fire Rest (24) - Angol

Jolly Sailor Rest (26) - Angol

Villacel Rest. & Cocktail Bar (24) - Angol billiard tables

Moonlight Rest. (26) - Angol

Hapit-Anay (26) - Angol; native fast-food

Coffee Shops, Snack Bars & Bakeries

English Bakery & Tea Room (15) - Balabag nicely situated in an almost English landscape; once a week English food prepared by a genuine Englishman; excellent European bread and pastries

Cafe Espresso (18) - Balabag espresso, cappuccino; friendly service; people help with information; chess club; large selection of books in many languages

Coffee and Tea (11) - Balabagbrewed coffee; English and European books

Plaza Cafe (10) - BalabagCharito's Brewed Coffee (11) - Balabagespresso, cappuccino

Coco-Loco Hut (26) - Angol pizza

jony's Place (13) Balabag; excellent fruit shakes

Reycon's Shop & Snack Bar (23) - Mangayad

Boracay Store & Refreshment (24) - Angol

Avenhja's (24) - Angol mini store & snack house


Philippines / Western Visayas / Boracay / Entertainments

The small Cinema (26) in Angol shows Tagalog and English movies daily at 18:30. It is equipped with a color television set and a video recorder.

The Sulu Bar (24), also in Angol, is a cozy meeting place after dinner for a chat or game of pool Snacks and international cocktails are served. Other places are:

The Floating Bar, offshore Angol, is a unique place; often classical music; sometimes Champagne and fresh strawberries; shuttle service by boat

Beachcomber (11) - Balabag bar, rest and disco

Bazura (18) - Balabag ;bar, rest and disco

Sanctuary (19) - Balabag bar, rest, disco, live music

Sandbar Disco (26) - Angol bar, rest, disco

Benny's Bar (24) - Angol billiard tables

Traveler's (25) Angol drinks on the beach


Philippines / Western Visayas / Boracay / Sports

Latest equipment for windsurfing Is available at between 75 and 150 pesos per hour. Richie's Windsurfing School (16) offers a beginners course of five days for 1,400 pesos (equipment rental included). Richie, Swiss champion in free style windsurfing, offers his services in English, German, French and Tagalog. He also runs a center for advanced windsurfers near Bulabog on the east coast.

For water-skiing Richie charges 150 pesos per hour including speed boat and equipment. An instructor is available upon request.

Sailboats (outriggers) are for rent at 150 pesos half day or whole day 250 pesos. Sailing courses with instructor are available for 400 pesos (3 lessons of 1 1/2 hour each) Info at Green Yard Resort.

Island round trips by motorized bangkas (maximum 8 persons) are available for about 350 pesos. The trip is offered by many resorts and private bangka owners. If used for fishing the rate is 400 pesos per day. Bamboo Restaurant (22) offers a package tour with a large outrigger (30 persons) around the island, from 9:30 until sunset. Included are lunch, drinks, stops at the ‘Kar Tir Sea Shell Museum’ in Ilig-Iligan and the bat caves near Yapak. The fare is 250 pesos per head.

A sunset cruise on a big outrigger is offered daily between 16:00 and 18:00 at the Palm Beach Club (22), weather allowing. The cruise is 75 pesos per person and all drinks are free.

Boracay Horse Riding Stable (15) - Balabag 8 horses; 140/hr (lesson included) booking one day in advance

Richie’s Mistral Windsurfing School (16) Balabag; 25-30 boardg, top equipment 100/hr (new boards), 75/hr (old boards)

Donaire Dive Center (20) one dive 350 (3hrs), two dives 600 (6hrs) 3 day trip to Sibay and Maniquin islands w/camping 1,980; 5 days licensed diving course $. 175; introductory dive 450 (3 hrs)

F 2 Windsurf Center (19) - Balabag beginner board 60/hr, 200/day fun board 80/hr, 300/day, 1600/week instruction 150/hr

Lapu-Lapu Diving (19) - Balabag in front of "Chez Deparis"; one dive 350, two dives 600; introduction dive 450; advanced open water course $ 125 (2 days)open water course $ 175 (4-5 days)

Tennis Courts - Tirol-Tirol Beach Resort P 95/hr, rackets and balls included

Bicycle Rental - Puti Francisco P 15/hr, P 125/day


Philippines / Western Visayas / Boracay / Miscellaneous

The Department of Tourism (20) has its field office near 'Tirol-Tirol Beach Club'.

Police outposts (22) are on 'White Beach' behind 'Palm Beach Club' and in Manoc-Manoc.

There is a small post office (9) in Balabag; many resorts, however, offer a direct mail service via Kalibo.

Basic medical service is offered by a small medical clinic (24). It is equipped for minor illnesses. The nearest hospital is in Caticlan (Aklan Baptist Hospital). In a more serious case one should go to one of Kalibo's hospitals (see Kalibo chapter).

Blind masseurs offer Shiatsu Therapeutic Acupressure Massage (20) in Mangayad. The masseurs are also available for home service. Charges are 120 to 150 pesos per hour. The massage is surprisingly efficient not only in relaxing the body but also the mind.

Radio contact with Manila, international telex and telefax are available at 'Lorenzo's Beach Resort' (23). Long distance and international calls can be made at 'Palm Beach Resort' (22).

There are no official money changers on Boracay. It is advisable to change enough money in Manila before going to Boracay.

Several resorts on Boracay have books that can be borrowed by guests. The best selection of books, with many current titles, is at Cafe Espresso (18) in Balabag. It's also the place with the best coffee available on Boracay, and it's the meeting place of many chess players. They even have an informal chess club. Another place in Balabag with many American and European books is Coffee and Tea (11). At both places books can be swapped too. Jackson's Library (17) has a large selection of books in many languages, even in Hebrew and Japanese.


Philippines / Western Visayas / Boracay / Transportation

From Manila by plane

Philippine Airlines (PAL) has 3 flights daily from Manila to Kalibo. But during high season PAL flights to Kalibo are often fully booked for several weeks. Alternative flight destinations can be to Tablas island (Romblon province), Roxas City (north Panay) or Iloilo City (southwest Panay).

The most convenient route is a flight to Caticlan, the jumping-off point to Boracay on the northwest tip of Panay, by private airlines such as Aerolift (Aer) and Pacific Air (Pac). They offer daily flights on smaller aircraft.

PAL has offices at the airports of Kalibo and Tugdan on Tablas island and in Looc on Tablas. In Manila, Aerolift tickets are sold in the Manila tourist belt by Southeast Travel (corner Del Pilar St/Pedro Gil St) and by Broadway Travel (Chateau Marie, corner Roxas Blvd/Padre Faura St). The main office of Aerolift in Metro Manila is in Makati, Chemphil Bldg, 851 Pasay Rd, Tel 817-23-61, 817-23-69, 817-4223. The Makati office is open 9:00-18:00. Pacific Air's Metro Manila office is on the Domestic Airport Rd, Pasay City, Tel 832-27-31, 832-27-32, 833-23-90.

On Boracay, Aerolift has an office at Lorenzo Resort (23), Pacific Air at the Dublin Resthouse (26).

Broadway Travel offers package tours for 3 days including round trip air fare (Manila-Caticlan-Marlila).


Malay William MV Masbate Fr,12:00 Sa,5:00 17hrs

Dumaguit Aboitiz El Cano Th,12:00 Fr,11:00 23hrs

Dumaguit * Aboitiz MV Legazpi Su,12:00 Mo,8:00 20hrs

New Washington Gothong Guadalupe We.12:00 Th,10:00 22hrs

* effective 3rd week of March until 3rd week of June,1989

From Manila by boat

A cheaper alternative from Manila to Boracay is a boat trip to the towns of either Malay or Dumaguit/New Washington on the north coast of Panay and then by public bus or jeepney to Caticlan. The boat ride can actually help save on expenses for a simple accommodation since the boats sail overnight. These trips are offered by William Lines, Aboitiz Shipping Corp. and Gothong Lines. All ships depart from North Harbor, Manila.

Malay is the most convenient destination, because bangkas (outriggers with engines) are already awaiting the arrival of the MV Masbate of William Lines for the transfer to Boracay. Since there is no adequate pier in Sanviray, the harbor of Malay, the MV Masbate stops off-shore and passengers are picked up by bangkas directly from the vessel. Caution, the boat ride to Malay (mainland), but passengers to Boracay may depend on being offered a special trip which will generally be overcharged.

A trip on the MV El Cano of Aboitiz Shipping Corp. to Dumaguit includes a stopover at Romblon.

From Caticlan

There is frequent bangka ferry service between Caticlan and White Beach on Boracay. Only bangkas with a white flag are scheduled and stop at White Beach at places which are marked with a white flag. There are no piers at the landing points, so one must be prepared to get wet and pack valuables in plastic.

From Kalibo

At the airport in Kalibo one may take a tricycle to town and proceed to Caticlan by bus or jeepney. Terminals are on Roxas Ave (see Kalibo chapter). During the high season bus and jeepney operators offer direct trips from the airport to Caticlan. Duration: 2 hours.

From Dumaguit or New Washington

From Dumaguit or New Washington one has to take a jeepney to Kalibo first and then a bus or jeepney to Caticlan. The whole trip is about 3 hours.

From Roxas City

There is a bus connection to Kalibo from Roxas City almost hourly. The bus terminal is at the market. An alternative is a jeepney trip to Sigma; there one may board a Kalibo-bound bus that frequently come from Iloilo.

From IIoilo City

Ceres Liner buses run almost hourly from Iloilo to Kalibo between 3:00 and 15:00. The terminal in Iloilo is on Rizal St (downtown) and the trip takes about 4hrs. There are "ordinary" as well as "express" buses.

From Tablas

From the airport on Tablas island jeepneys ply routes to Looc and Sta. Fe where bangkas wait for passengers bound for Boracay. The boat trip takes 1 1/2 to 2 hours.

There are also a frequent jeepney connections from Qdiongan to Looc and Sta.Fe.

From Mindoro

An alternate route by land/water transportation from Manila can be via Mindoro, either Puerto Galera or Calapan. To Roxas, the jumping-off point on the east coast of Mindoro, one can take a bus from Calapan. A big outrigger ferry leaves Roxas daily for Odiongan or Looc on Tablas. At Melco Beach Resort in Roxas some private bangka owners offer special trips direct to Boracay. Since the Tablas Strait (between Mindoro and Tablas) is buttered by high waves and dangerous currents the trip is considered risky. In February 1987 a bangka with nine tourists and five boatmen allegedly sank on this route.

From Cebu by plane


Kalibo PAL Mo 13:25 14:20

Kalibo PAL Tu,Th,Sa 15:30 16:25

Iloilo PAL daily 5:00 5:55

Iloilo PAL Mo,We 6:20 7:15

Iloilo PAL daily 7:30 8:05

lloilo PAL Mo,We,Fr 12:30 13:05

Caticlan Pac request 9:00 10:20

PAL departs at Mactan Island Airport, and Pacific Air takes off at Lahug Airport in Cebu City.

Ceres Liner buses leave Cebu City (Rizal Ave) for Bacolod (Negros) early in the morning. From Bacolod a ferry leaves for Iloilo twice a day.

From Palawan

PAL flies from Puerto Princess to Iloilo every Mo and We at 9:30 and arrives at 11:00.

The MV Masbate of William Lines departs from Puerto Princess every Sunday at 21:00 and arrives at Malay on Monday at about noon.


To Manila by plane


Kalibo PAL daily 9:50 11:00

Kalibo PAL daily 13:40 14:50

Kalibo PAL daily 16:55 18:05

Tablas PAL daily 10:55 11:55

Tablas PAL Tu,Sa 14:20 15:20

Iloilo PAL daily 8:05 9:10

IloiIo PAL daily 14:45 15:50

Iloilo PAL daily 16:15 17:20

Iloilo PAL daily 18:30 19:35

lloilo PAL daily 20:10 21:15

Roxas PAL daily 11:25 12:20 533

Caticlan Pac daily 9:00 10:50

Caticlan Pac daily 13:00 14:30

Caticlan Pac daily 16:00 17:30

Caticlan Aer Fr,Sa 8:40 10:00

Caticlan Aer Mo,We,Er 12:10 13:30

Caticlan Aer Mo,We,Fr 16:40 18:00

Caticlan Aer ‘Fu,Th,Sa 16:55 18:15

To Manila by boat

The "MV Masbate" of William Lines anchors off-shore Malay. Passengers will have to use a ferry service from the harbor to the vessel by bangka. The jumping-off point near Malay can be reached from Caticlan by tricycle in ten minutes. Tickets are also sold there.

Bangka owners offer special trips direct from Boracay to the vessel. But these services are mostly overcharged.

To Caticlan

There is a frequent bangka ferry service between Caticlan and White Beach on Boracay. Only bangkas with a white flag are scheduled and stop at White Beach at places which are marked with a white flag. There are no piers at the landing points, so one must be prepared to get wet and pack valuables in plastic.

To Kalibo

Arriving in Caticlan by bangka a jeepney or bus to Kalibo will usually wait for passengers near the shore line. They only depart when full and the trip takes about two hours. There is a special bus trip direct to Kalibo airport, that departs from Caticlan at about 7:00, to catch PAL's morning flight.


Malay William MV Masbate Mo,14:00 Tu,7:00 17hrs

Dumaguit Aboitiz El Cano Sa,13:00 Tu,12:00 23hrs

Dumaguit * Aboitiz MV Legazpi Mo,12:00 Tu,8:00 20hrs

New Washington Gothong Guadalupe Su,12:00 Mo,10:00 22hrs

* effective 3rd week of March until 3rd week of june,1989

To Dumaguit or New Washington

Jeepneys wait in Kalibo around the market on Gonzales and Torong Sts.

To Roxas

Buses wait near Ceres Liner Terminal in Kalibo. Departure is almost hourly. One may also take the bus bound for Iloilo until Sigma and from there a jeepney to Roxas.

To Iloilo

Ceres Liner buses leave Kalibo from the terminal at corner Mabini and Ma-agma Streets between 3:00 and 14:30 almost hourly. The trip takes 4 hours.

To Tablas & Mindoro

There is irregular ferry service to Odiongan/Tablas by a large outrigger which stops at White Beach to pick up passengers.

Bangka owners on Boracay offer individual boat rides to Sta.Fe or Looc on Tablas. These trips take about 2 hours and the fare has to be negotiated. From Sta.Fe or Looc jeepneys go to the airport, to Looc and to Odiongan, where a big outrigger departs for Roxas, Mindoro, in the afternoon. The boat trip takes 3 1/2 hours.

To Palawan

PAL flies from Iloilo to Puerto Princess every Mo and We at 7:35 and arrives at 9:05. The fare is 523 pesos.

The MV Masbate of William Lines leaves Malay for Puerto Princess every Saturday late afternoon. The trip takes 15 hours and costs 132 pesos for 3rd class, 160 pesos for 2nd class and 200-250 pesos per person for cabins. Arrival time is Sunday morning.

SHIPPING SCHEDULE (except Boracay)

DESTINATION Isl/Port FROM Company DEPARTURE time-day/ . Travel time/via/vessel

Cebu Cebu City Iloilo Trans-Asia 1 trip daily

Cebu City N.Washing Gothong 18:00-Thu /20hrs

Cebu City Roxas Gothong 18:00-Sun /22hrs

Luzon Manila Estancia Sulpicio 22:00-Thu /17hrs

Manila Iloilo Negr.Nav 10-Mon,Thu/24hrs/MV sta . . . . Florentina

Manila Iloilo Negr.Nav 12:30_fri,Tue/24hrs /Don

Claudio,Sta Maria

Manila Iloilo Sulpicio 14:00_Sun/22hrs/Don Eusebio

Mindanao Cagayan Dumaguit William 08:00_wed/ 19hrs/ MV Cebu City

Cagayan Iloilo Negr.Nav 17:00-Sat /15hrs/MV Sta.Florentina

Zamboanga Iloilo Sulpicio 22:00-Sun,17:00-Wed /14 hrs

Mindoro San Jose Malay or Buruanga several trip weekly

Negros Bacolod Iloilo Negr.Nav 7:00,15:00daily/2hrs


Iloilo - Kalibo (3-4 hrs) frequent buses during day

Iloilo - San Jose de Buenavista direct buses or jeepneys to San Joaquin there other buses or jeepneys to San Jose

Iloilo - Estancia / Balásan frequent buses during day

San Jose - Culasi - Pandan - Kalibo (8-9 hr.s) frequent buses and jeepneys


FLIGHTS FROM PANAY (except Boracay)

from-to Days Dep Arr

Iloilo-Manila daily 10:45 11:45

Daily 13:00 14:00

Mo,We,Fr,Su 16:20 17:20

Daily 15:55 16:55

Daily 21:10 22:10

Iloilo-Cebu daily 7:05 7:40

Daily 19:55 20:40